Maxims of Law

Bouvier’s Law Dictionary 3rd Revision Vol II 1914

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The following list comprises, it is believed, all the legal maxims, commonly so called, together with some that are in reality nothing more than legal phrases, accompanied by a translation, and, in most cases, a reference to one or more authorities which are intended to show the origin or application of the rule. It is obvious that many of them are of slight value and that more of them are open to objections, so far as they can be considered to be statements of principles of law.
MAXIM. An established principle or proposition. A principle of law universally admitted as being just and consonant with reason.
Maxims are said to have been of comparatively late origin in the Roman law. There are none in the Twelve Tables, and they appear but rarely in Gaius and the ante-Justinian fragments, or in the older English text-books and reports. The word maximum or maxima does not occur in the Corpus Juris in any meaning resembling that now borne by it; the nearest word in classical Roman law is regula; Fortescue identifies the two terms, and Du Cange defines maxima as recepta sententia, regula, vulgo nostris et Anglis maxime. Doctor and Student defines maxims as “the foundations of the Law and the conclusions of reason, and therefore they ought not to be impugned, but always to be admitted.” Coke says they are “a sure foundation or ground of art and a conclusion of reason, so sure and uncontrolled that they ought not to be questioned,” and that a maxim is so called “guia maxima ejus dignitas et certissima authoritas, atque quod maxime omnibus probetur.” Co. Litt. 11 a. He says in another place: “A maxime is a proposition to be of all men confessed and granted without proofs, argument, or discourse.” See 30 L. Quart & Rev. 283.
Regula appears not to be quite the same thing as maxim. The Digest makes the line between regula, definitio, and sententia a narrow one. Sententia is used in several texts as equivalent to regula. Definitio, in Labeo, is really a rule of law. In Papinius it is more like responsa prudentis. In some editions of the Corpus Juris maxims are given under the name of Regulae et Sententiae Juris. See 20 L. Mag. & Rev. 283.
Maxims in law are said to be somewhat like axioms in geometry. 1 Bla. Com. 68. They are principles and authorities, and part of the general customs or common law of the land, and are of the same strength as acts of parliament, when the judges have determined what is a maxim. This determination belongs to the court and not the jury; Termes de la Ley; Doct. & Stud. Dial. 1, c. 8; they prove themselves; id. Maxims of the law are holden for law, and all other cases that may be applied to them shall be taken for granted; Co. Litt. 11, 67. See Plowd. 27 B.
The alteration of any of the maxims of the common law is dangerous; 2 Inst. 210. See the introduction by W. F. Cooper to Barton’s Maxims.
Later writers place less value on maxims; thus: “It seems to me that legal maxims in general are little more than pert headings of chapters. They are rather minims than maxims, for they give not a particularly great, but a particularly small, amount of information. As often as not the exceptions and qualifications to them are more important than the so-called rules.” 2 Steph. Hist, of Cr. L. 94.
“We believe that not a single law maxim can be pointed out which is not obnoxious to objection.” Towns. SI. & Lib. § 88.
“Many of the sayings that are dignified by the name of maxims are nothing but the obiter dicta of ancient judges who were fond of sententious phrases, and sometimes sacrificed accuracy of definition to terseness of expression; and some . . . have no definite meaning at all.” B. Q. Keasbey, in 3 N. J. L. J. 160.
“Maxims are not all of equal value; some ought to be amended and others discarded altogether; they are neither definitions nor treatises; they require the test of careful analysis; they are in many instances merely guide-posts pointing to the right road, but not the road itself.” Prof. Jeremiah Smith, in 9 Harv. L. Rev. 26.
Salmond (Jurisprudence, p. 638) gives a list of 39 of the “more important and familiar maxims” with brief comments and references. He considers that “maxims are not without their uses, though they are much too absolute to be taken as trustworthy guides to the law. They are a sort of legal shorthand, useful to the lawyer, but dangerous to any one else.”
“I need hardly repeat that I detest the attempt to fetter the law by maxims. They are almost invariably misleading; they are for the most part so large and general in their language that they always include something which really is not intended to be Included in them.” Lord Esher, M. R., in 19 g. B. D. 653.
Maxims have been divided, as to their origin, into three classes: Roman, Roman modified, and indigenous; 20 L. Mag. & Rev. 283. They are mostly derived from the civil law, either literally or by adaptation, and most of those which are not to be found in the Roman sources are the invention of medieval jurists. Salmond, Jurispr. 638.
The application of the maxim to the ease before the court is generally the only difficulty. The true method of making the application is to ascertain how the maxim arose, and to consider whether the case to which it is sought to be applied is of the same character, or whether it is an exception to an apparently general rule. This requires extended discussion, which it has received (so far as the more important maxims are concerned) in the able treatise on Legal Maxims by Broom.
Non ex regula jus sumatur, sed ex jure quod est regula fiat. The law should not be taken from maxims, but maxims from the law; 9 Jurid. Rev. 307.
The earliest work on maxims appears to have been that of Bacon (1630), followed by Noy (1641), Wingate (1658), Heath (Pleading, 1694), Francis (1728), Grounds and Rudiments of Law and Equity (anonymous, 1751, of which Francis was the author). Branch (1753), Lofft (1776, in his Reports). In the last century, Broom (1845), Trayner (1872, 1883), Cotterell (1881, 1894), and Wharton’s Dictionary (1848, 1892), Lawson (1883), Bell’s Dictionary (Scotch, 1890), Peloubet (New York, 1880), Barton, Stimson, Morgan, Tayler, Hening, Halkerston, Jackson (Law Latin), and Hughes. See the various Law Dictionaries; also 15 West. Jur. 337; 13 Cr. L. Mag. 832; 5 L. Quart. Rev. 444; 35 Amer. L. Rev. 529.

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A commumi observantia non est recedendum. There should be no departure from common observance (or usage). Co. Litt. 186; Wing. Max. 203; 2 Co. 74.

A digniori fieri debet denominatio et resolutio. The denomination and explanation ought to be derived from the more worthy. Wing. Max. 265; Fleta, lib. 4, c. 10, § 12.

A justitia (quasi a quodam fonte) omnia jura emanant. From justice, as a fountain, all rights flow. Brac. 2 b.

A I’impossible nul n’est tenu. No one is bound to do what is impossible.

A non posse ad non esse sequitur argumentum necessarie negative, licet non affirmative. From impossibility to non-existence the inference follows necessarily in the negative, though not in the affirmative. Hob. 336.

A piratis aut latronibus capti liberi permanent. Those captured by pirates or robbers remain free. Dig. 49, 15, 192; Grot. lib. 3, c. 3, s. 1.

A piratis et latronibus capta dominium non mutant. Things captured by pirates or robbers do not change their ownership. 1 Kent 108, 184; 2 Woodd. Lect. 258, 259.

A rescriptis valet argumentum. An argument from rescripts [i. e. original writs in the register] is valid. Co. Litt. 11 a.

A summo remedio ad inferiorem actionem non habetur regressus neque auxilium. From the highest remedy to an inferior action there is no return or assistance. Fleta, lib. 6, c. 1; Brac. 104 a, 112 b; 3 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 193, 194.

A verbis legis non est recedendum. From the words of the law there should be no departure. Broom, Max. 622; Wing. Max. 25; 6 Co. 119.

Ab abusu ad usum non valet consequentia. A conclusion as to the use of a thing from its abuse is invalid. Broom, Max. xvil.

Ab assuetis non fit injuria. No injury is done by things long acquiesced in. Jenk. Cent. Introd. vl.

Abbreviationum ille numerus et sensus accipiendus est, ut concessio non sit inanis. Such number and sense is to be given to abbreviations that the grant may not fail. 9 Co. 48.

Absentem accipere debemus eum qui non est eo loco in quo petitur. We must consider him absent who is not in that place in which he is sought. Dig. 60. 60. 199.

Absentia ejus qui reipublicæ causa abest, neque ei neque aliis damnosa esse debet. The absence of him who is employed in the service of the state ought not to be prejudicial to him nor to others. Dig. 50. 17. 140.

Absoluta sententia expositore non indiget. A simple proposition needs no expositor. 2 Inst. 533.

Abundans cautela non nocet. Abundant caution does no harm. 11 Co. 6; Fleta, lib. 1, c. 28, § 1; 6 Wheat. 108.

Accessorium non ducit sed sequitur suum principale. The accessory does not draw, but follows, its principal. Co. Litt. 152 a, 389 a; 6 E. & B. 772; Broom, Max. 491; Lindl. Part. 1036.

Accessorius sequitur naturam sui principalis. An accessory follows the nature of his principal. 3 Inst. 139; 4 Bla. Com. 36; Broom, Max. 497.

Accipere quid ut justitiam facias, non est tam accipere quam extorquere. To accept anything as a reward for doing justice, is rather extorting than accepting. Lofft 72.

Accusare nemo debet se, nisi coram Deo. No one is obliged to accuse himself, unless before God. Hardr. 139.

Accusator post rationabile tempus non est audiendus, nisi se bene de omissione excusaverit. An accuser is not to be heard after a reasonable time, unless he excuse himself satisfactorily for the omission. F. Moore 817; Bart. Max. 29.

Acta exteriora indicant interiora secreta. Outward acts indicate the inward intent. Broom, Max. 301; 8 Co. 146 b; 1 Sm. L. Cas. 261.

Acta in uno judicio non probant in alio nisi inter easdem personas. Things done in one action cannot be taken as evidence in another, unless it be between the same parties. Trayner, Max. 11.

Actio non datur non damnificato. An action is not given to one who is not injured. Jenk. Cent. 69.

Actio non facit reum, nisi mens sit rea. An act does not make one guilty, unless the intention be bad. Loftt 37. See Actus non, etc.

Actio personalis moritur cum persona. A personal action dies with the person. Noy, Max. 14; Broom, Max. 904; 13 Mass. 455; 21 Pick. 252; Bart. Max. 30; 38 Fed. 80; 40 W. N. C. (Pa.) 345; 3 Am. & Eng. Rul. Cas. N. s. 309. See Actio Personalis.

Actio quælibel it sua via. Every action proceeds in its own course. Jenk. Cent. 77.

Actionum genera maxime sunt servanda. The kinds of actions are especially to be preserved. Lofft 460.

Actor qui contra regulam quid adduxit, non est audiendus. A pleader ought not to be heard who advances a proposition contrary to the rules of law.

Actor sequitur forum rei. The plaintiff must follow the forum of the thing in dispute. Homs, Law Tr. 232; Story, Confl. L. § 325 k; 2 Kent 462.

Actore non probante, reus absolvitur. If the plaintiff does not prove his case, the defendant is absolved. Hob. 103.

Actori incumbit onus probandi. The burden of proof lies on the plaintiff. Hob. 103; 100 Mass. 490. See Dig. 22. 3. 2.

Acts indicate the intention. 8 Co. 146 b; Broom, Max. 301.

Actus curiæ neminem gravabit. An act of the court shall prejudice no man. Jenk. Cent. 118; Broom, Max. 122; 1 Str. 426; 1 Sm. L. C., notes to Cumber v. Wane; 12 C. B. 415.

Actus Dei nemini facit injuriam. The act of God does wrong to no one (that is, no one is responsible in damages for inevitable accidents). 2. Bla. Com. 122; Broom, Max. 230; 1 Co. 97 b; 5 id. 87 a; Co. Litt. 206 a; 4 Taunt. 309; 1 Term 33. See Act Of God.

Actus inceptus cujus perfectio pendet ex voluntate partium, revocari potest; si autem pendet ex voluntate tertiæ personæ, vel ex contingenti, revocari non potest. An act already begun, whose completion depends upon the will of the parties, may be recalled; but if it depend on consent of a third person, or on a contingency, it cannot be recalled. Bacon, Max. Reg. 20. See Story, Ag. § 424.

Actus judiciarius coram non judice irritus habetur; de ministeriali autem a quocunque provenit ratum esto. A judicial act before one not a judge is void; as to a ministerial act, from whomsoever it proceeds, let it be valid. Lofft 458.

Actus legis nemini est damnosus. An act of the law shall prejudice no man. 2d Inst. 287; Broom, Max. 126; 11 Johns. (N. Y.) 380; 3 Co. 87 a; Co. Litt. 264 b; 5 Term 381, 385; 2 H. Bla. 324; 1 Prest. Abs. of Tit. 346; 6 Bacon, Abr. 659.

Actus legis nemini facit injuriam. The act of the law does no one wrong. Broom, Max. 127, 409; 2 Bla. Com. 123.

Actus legitimi non recipiunt modum. Acts required by law admit of no qualification. Hob. 153; Branch, Pr.

Actus me invito factus, non est meus actus. An act done by me against my will is not my act. Brac. 101 b.

Actus non reum facit nisi mens sit rea. An act does not make a person guilty unless his intention be guilty also. (This maxim applies only in criminal cases; in civil matters it is otherwise.) Broom, Max. 306, 367, 807, n; 7 Term 614; 3 Bingh. N. C. 34, 468; 6 M. & G. 639; 3 C. B. 229; 5 id. 380; 9 CI. & F. 631; 4 N. Y. 159, 163; L. R. 2 C. C. R. 160 (a very full case). It has been said that this is “the foundation of all criminal justice;” 8 Cox, Cr. Cas. 477, per Cockburn, C. J.; but it has also been said to be “an unfortunate phrase and actually misleading;” L. R. 23 Q. B. D. 185; and to be “somewhat uncouth;” id. 181; also that “the expression (mens rea) is unmeaning;” 2 Steph. Hist. Cr. L. 95. See Ignorance; Intention; Mens Rea; Salmond, Jurispr. 638.

Actus repugnans non potest in esse produci. A repugnant act cannot be brought into being (i. e, cannot be made effectual). Plowd. 355.

Actus servi in iis quibus opera ejus communiter adhibita est, actus domini habetur. The act of a servant in those things in which he is usually employed, is considered the act of his master. Lofft 227.

Ad ea quæ frequentius accidunt jura adaptantur. The laws are adapted to those cases, which occur more frequently. 2 Inst. 137; Wing. Max. 216; Dig. 1. 3. 3; 19 How. St. Tr. 1061; 3 B. & C. 178, 183; 2 G. & J. 108; 7 M. & W. 599, 600; Vaugh. 373; 6 Co. 77 a; 11 Exch. 476; 11 id. 628; 12 How. (U. S.) 312. 13 L. Ed. 996; 7 Allen (Mass.) 227; Broom, Max. 43.

Ad officium justiciariorum spectat, unicuique coram eis placitanti justitiam exhibere. It is the duty of justices to administer justice to every one pleading before them. 2 Inst. 451.

Ad proximum antecedens fiat relatio, nisi impediatur sententia. A relative is to be referred to the next antecedent, unless the sense would be thereby impaired. Broom, Max. 680; Noy, Max., 9th ed. 4; 2 Exch. 479; 17 Q. B. 833 ; 2 H. & N. 625; 3 Bingh. N. C. 217; 13 How. (U. S.) 142, 14 L. Ed. 75.

Ad quæstiones facti non respondent judices; ad quæstiones legis non respondent juratores. The judges do not answer to questions of fact; the jury do not answer to questions of law. Co. Litt. 295; 8 Co. 155 a; Vaugh. 149; 5 Gray (Mass.) 211, 219, 290; Broom, Max. 102.

Ad quæstiones juris respondent judices; ad quæstionem facti respondent juratores. See Jury.

Ad quæstiones legis judices, et non juratores, respondent. Judges, and not jurors, decide questions of law. 7 Mass. 279. See Jury.

Ad recte docendum oportet, primum inquirere nomina, quia rerum cognitio a nominibus rerum dependet. In order rightly to comprehend a thing, inquire first into the names, for a right knowledge of things depends upon their names. Co. Litt. 68.

Ad vim majorem vel ad casus fortuitos non tenetur quis, nisi sua culpa intervenerit. No one is held to answer for the effects of a superior force, or of accidents, unless his own fault has contributed. Fleta, lib. 2, c. 72, § 16.

Additio probat minoritatem. An addition proves inferiority. That is, if it be said that a man has a fee tail, it is less than if he has the fee. 4 Inst. 80; Wing. Max. 211, Max. 60; Littleton § 293; Co. Litt. 189 a.

Adjuvari quippe nos, non decipi, beneficio oportet. For we ought to be helped by a benefit, not destroyed by it. Dig. 13. 6, 17. 3; Broom, Max. 392.

Adversus extraneos vitiosa possessio prodesse solet. Prior possession is a good title of ownership against all who cannot show a better. D. 41. 2. 53; Salmond, Jurispr. 638.

Ædificare in tuo proprio solo non licet quod alteri noceat. It is not lawful to build upon one’s own land what may be injurious to another. 3 Inst. 201; Broom, Max. 369.

Ædificatum solo, solo cedit. That which is built upon the land goes with the land. Co. Litt. 4 a; Inst. 2. 1. 29; Dig. 47. 3. 1.

Ædificia solo vedunt. Buildings pass by a grant of the land. Fleta. lib. 3, c. 2, § 12.

Æquior est dispositio legis quam hominis. The disposition of the law is more impartial than that of man. 8 Co. 152 a.

Æquitas agit in personam. Equity acts upon the person. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3733.

Æquitas est correctio legis generaliter latæ qua parte deficit. Equity is the correction of law, when too general, in the part in which it is defective. Plowd. 375; Bart. Max. 135.

Æquitas ignorantiæ opitulatur, oscitantiæ non item. Equity assists ignorance, but not carelessness.

Æquitas non facit jus, sed juri auxiliatur. Equity does not make law, but assists law. Lofft 379.

Æquitas nunquam contravenit legem. Equity never contradicts the law.

Æquitas sequitur legem. Equity follows the law. 1 Story, Eq. Jur. § 64; 3 Woodd. Lect. 479, 482; Branch, Max. 8; 2 Bla. Com. 330; Gilb. 136; 2 Eden 316; 10 Mod. 3; 15 How. (U. S.) 299. 14 L. Ed. 696; 7 Allen (Mass.) 503; 5 Barb. (N. Y.) 277, 282.

Æquitas supervacua odit. Equity abhors superfluous things. Lofft 282.

Æquum et bonum est lex legum. What is just and right is the law of laws. Hob. 224.

Æstimatio præteriti delicti ex postremo facio nunquam crescit. The estimation of a crime committed never increases from a subsequent fact. Bacon, Max. Reg. 8; Dig. 50. 17. 139.

Affectio tua nomen imponit operi tuo. Your motive gives a name to your act. Bract. 2 b, 101 b.

Affectus punitur licet non sequatur effectus. The intention is punished although the consequence do not follow. 9 Co. 57 a; see Attempt.

Affinis mei affinis non est mihi affinis. A connection (i. e. by marriage) of my connection is not a connection of mine. Shelf. Marr. & D. 174.

Affirmanti, non neganti, incumbit probatio. The proof lies upon him who affirms, not on him who denies. Phill. Ev. 493.

Affirmantis est probare. He who affirms must prove. 9 Cush. (Mass.) 535.

Agentes et consentientes pari pæna plectentur. Acting and consenting parties are liable to the same punishment. 5 Co. 80 a.

Aliena negotia exacto officio perunter. The business of another is to be conducted with particular attention. Jon. Bailm. 83.

Alienatio licet prohibeatur, consensu tamen omnium in quorum favorem prohibita est potest fieri, et quilibet potest renunciare juri pro se introducto. Although alienation be prohibited, yet, by the consent of all in whose favor it is prohibited, it may take place, for it is in the power of any man to renounce a right introduced for his own benefit. Co. Litt. 98; 9 N. Y. 291.

Alienatio rei præfertur juri accrescendi. Alienation is favored by the law rather than accumulation. Co. Litt. 185 a, 381 a, note; Broom, Max. 442, 458; Wright, Ten. 164; 1 Cruise, Dig. 77; 11 Ves. Jr. 112, 149; 10 L. T. n. s. 682.

Alienation pending a suit is void. 2 P. Wms. 482; 2 Atk. 174; 3 id. 392; 11 Ves. 194; 1 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 566, 580. See Lis Pendens.

Aliquid conceditur ne injuria remaneat impunita, quod alias non concederetur. Something is conceded lest a wrong should remain unpunished which otherwise would not be conceded. Co. Litt. 197.

Aliquis non debet esse judex in propria causa, quia non potest esse judex et pars. A person ought not to be judge in his own cause, because he cannot act both as judge and party. Co. Litt. 141 a; Broom, Max. 117; Littleton § 212; 13 Q. B. 327; 17 id. 1; 15 C. B. 769; 1 C. B. n. s. 329. See Judge; Incompetency.

Aliud est celare, aliud tacere. To conceal is one thing, to be silent another. 3 Burr. 1910. See 2 Wheat. (U. S.) 176, 6 L. Ed. 23; 9 Wheat. (U. S.) 631, 6 L. Ed. 174; 3 Bingh. 77; 4 Taunt. 851; 2 C. & P. 341; 18 Pick. (Mass.) 420; 22 id. 53; Broom, Max. 782; [1895] 2 Ch. 205.

Aliud est distinctio, aliud separatio. Distinction is one thing, separation another. Bacon’s arg. Case of Postnati of Scotland, Works iv. 351.

Aliud est possidere, aliud esse in possessione. It is one thing to possess, it is another to be in possession. Hob. 163; Bract. 206.

Aliud est vendere, aliud vendenti consentire. To sell is one thing, to give consent to him who sells another. Dig. 50. 17. 160.

Allegans contraria non est audiendus. One making contradictory allegations is not to be heard. Jenk. Cent. 16; Broom. Max. 169, 294; 4 Term. 211; 3 Exch. 446, 527, 678; 3 E. & B. 363; 6 C. B. 195, 886; 10 Mass. 163; 70 Pa. 274; 4 Inst. 279.

Allegans suam turpitudinem non est audiendus. One alleging his own infamy is not to be heard. 4 Inst. 279; 2 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 339; 13 Ch. Div, 696.

Allegari non debuit quod probatum non relevat. That ought not to have been alleged which, if proved, would not be relevant. 1 Ch. Cas. 45.

Allegatio contra factum, non est admittenda. An allegation contrary to a deed is not admissible. See Estoppel.

Alterius circumventio alii non præbet actionem. Dig. 50. 17. 49. A deception practised upon one person does not give a cause of action to another.

Alternativa petitio non est audienda. An alternative petition is not to be heard. 5 Co. 40 a.

Ambigua responsio contra proferentem est accipienda. An ambiguous answer is to be taken against the party who offers it. 10 Co. 59 a.

Ambiguis casibus semper præsumitur pro rege. In doubtful cases the presumption is always in favor of the king.

Ambiguitas contra stipulatorem est. Doubtful words will be construed most strongly against the party using them. See Insurance.

Ambiguitas verborum latens verificatione suppletur; nam quod ex facto oritur ambiguum verificatione facti tollitur. A latent ambiguity may be supplied by evidence; for an ambiguity, which arises out of a fact, may be removed by proof of the fact. Bacon, Max. Reg. 23; 8 Bingh. 247. See 1 Pow. Dev. 477; Bart. Max. 39; 2 Kent 557; Broom, Max. 608; 13 Pet. (U. S.) 97, 10 L. Ed. 72; 1 Gray (Mass.) 138; 100 Mass. 60; 8 N. J. L. 71. Said to be “an unprofitable subtlety; inadequate and uninstructive.” Prof. J. B. Thayer in 6 Harv. L. 417. See Latent Ambiguity.

Ambiguitas verborum patens nulla verificatione excluditur. A patent ambiguity is never holpen by averment. Lofft 249; Bacon, Max. 25; 21 Wend. (N. Y.) 651; 1 Tex. 377. See Patent Ambiguity.

Ambiguum placitum interpretari debet contra proferentem. An ambiguous plea ought to be interpreted against the party pleading it. Co. Litt. 303 b; Broom, Max. 601; Bacon, Max. Reg. 3; 2 H. Bla. 531; 2 M. & W. 444.

Ambulatoria est voluntas defuncti usque ad vitæ supremum exitum. A will is ambulatory until the last moment of life. Broom, Max. 503; 2 Bla. Com. 502; Co. Litt. 322 b; 3 E. & B. 572; 1 M. & K. 485.

Angliæ jura in omni casu libertati dant favorem. The laws of England are favorable in every case to liberty. Halkers. Max. 12.

Animus ad se omne jus ducit. It is to the intention that all law applies.

Animus hominis est anima scripti. The intention of the party is the soul of the instrument. 3 Bulstr. 67; Pitman, Princ. & Sur. 26.

Anniculus trecentesimo sexagesimo-quinto die dicitur, incipiente plane non exacto die, quia annum civiliter non ad momenta temporum, sed ad dies numeramur. We call a child a year old on the three hundred and sixty-fifth day, when the day is fairly begun but not ended, because we calculate the civil year not by moments, but by days. Dig. 50. 16. 134; id. 132; Calvinus, Lex. See Age.

Annua nec debitum judex non separat ipæ. Even the judge apportions not annuities or debt. 8 Co. 52. See Story, Eq. Jur. §§ 480, 517; 1 Salk. 36, 65.

Annus est mora motus quo suum planeta pervolvat circulum. A year is the duration of the motion by which a planet revolves through its orbit. Dig. 40. 7. 4. 5; Calvinus, Lex.; Bract. 359 b.

Annus inceptus pro completo habetur. A year begun is held as completed. Said to be of very limited application. Trayner, Max. 45.

Apices juris non sunt jura. Legal niceties are not law. Co. Litt. 304. Legal principles must not be carried to their extreme consequences, regardless of equity and good sense. Salmond, Jurispr. 639. See 3 Scott 773; 10 Co. 126; Broom, Max. 188. See Apex Juris.

Applicatio est vita regulæ. The application is the life of a rule. 2 Bulstr. 79.

Aqua cedit solo. The grant of the soil carries the water. Hale, de Jur. Mar. pt. 1, c. 1. Water runs and ought to run as it was wont to run. Bart. Max. 315; 3 Kent 439; Ang. Wat. Cour. 413; Gale & W. Easem. 182; 39 S. W. (Tenn.) 905.

Arbitramentum æquum tribuit cuique suum. A just arbitration renders to every one his own. Noy, Max. 248.

Arbitrium est judicium. An award is a judgment. Jenk. Cent. 137; 3 Bulstr. 64.

Arbor, dum crescit; lignum, dum crescere nescit. A tree while it is growing; wood when it cannot grow. Cro. Jac. 166; 12 Johns. (N. Y.) 239, 241; 21 Wall. (U. S.) 64. 22 L. Ed. 551.

Argumentum a divisione est fortissimum in jure. An argument based on a subdivision of the subject is most powerful in law. 6 Co. 60 a; Co. Litt. 213 b.

Argumentum a majori ad minus negative non valet; valet e converso. An argument from the greater to the less is of no force negatively; conversely it is. Jenk. Cent. 281.

Argumentum a simili valet in lege. An argument drawn from a similar case, or analogy, avails in law. Co. Litt. 191.

Argumentum ab auctoritate est fortissimum in lege. An argument drawn from authority is the strongest in law. Co. Litt. 254.

Argumentum ab impossibili plurimum valet in lege. An argument deduced from impossibility greatly avails in law. Co. Litt. 92.

Argumentum ab inconvenienti est validum in lege; quia lex non permittit aliquod inconveniens. An argument drawn from what is inconvenient is good in law, because the law will not permit any inconvenience. Co. Litt. 66 a, 258; 7 Taunt. 527; 3 B. & C. 131; 6 Cl. & F. 671. See Brown, Max. 184; Copley, Const. Lim. 82-86.

Arma in armatos sumere jura sinunt. The laws permit the taking arms against the armed. 2 Inst. 574.

Assignatus utitur jure auctoris. An assignee is clothed with the rights of his principal. Halkers. Max. 14; Broom, Max. 465, 477; Wing. Max. 56; 1 Exch. 32; 18 Q. B. 878; Perkins § 100.

Auctoritates philosophorum, medicorum et pœtarum sunt in causis allegandae et tenendae. The opinions of philosophers, physicians, and poets are to be alleged and received in causes. Co. Litt. 264.

Aucupia verborum sunt judice indigna. Catching at words is unworthy of a judge. Hob. 343.

Audi alteram partem. Hear the other side (or no man should be condemned unheard). Broom, Max. 113; 46 N. Y. 119; 1 Cush. (Mass.) 243.

Authority to execute a deed must be given by deed. Comyn, Dig. Attorney (C 5); 4 Term 313; 7 id. 207; 1 Holt 141; 5 Binn. (Pa.) 613.

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Baratriam committit qui propter pecuniam justitiam baractat. He is guilty of barratry who for money sells justice. Bell, Diet. (Barratry at common law has a different signification. See Barratry.)

Bastardus non potest habere hæredem nisi de corpore suo legitime procreatum. A bastard can have no heir unless it be one lawfully begotten of his own body. Trayner, Max. 51.

Bello parta cedunt reipublicæ. Things acquired in war go to the state. Cited 2 Russ. & M. 56; 1 Kent 101; 5 C. Rob. 155, 163.

Benedicta est expositio quando res redimitur a destructione. Blessed is the exposition when the thing is saved from destruction. 4 Co. 26 b.

Benigne faciendæ sunt interpretationes chartarum, ut res magis valeat quam pereat; et quælibet concessio fortissime contra donatorem interpretanda est. Liberal interpretations are to be made of deeds, so that they may rather stand than fall; and every grant is to be taken most strongly against the grantor. 4 Mass. 134; 1 Sandf. Ch. (N. Y.) 258, 268; compare id. 275, 277; 78 Pa. 219.

Benigne faciendæ sunt interpretationes propter simplicitatem laicorum, ut res magis valeat quam pereat; et verba intentioni, non e contra, debent inservire. Construction should be liberal on account of the ignorance of the laity, so that the subject-matter may stand rather than fall; and words must be subject to the intention, not the intention to the words. Co. Litt. 36 a; Broom, Max. 540, 565, 645; 11 Q. B. 852, 856, 868, 870; 4 H. L. Cas. 556; 2 Bla. Com. 379; 1 Bulstr. 175; 1 Whart. (Pa.) 315.

Benignior sententia in verbis generalibus seu dubiis est preferenda. The more favorable construction is to be placed on general or doubtful expressions. 4 Co. 15; Dig. 50. 17. 192. 1; 2 Kent 557.

Benignius leges interpretandæ sunt quo voluntas earum conservetur. Laws are to be more favorably interpreted, that their intent may be preserved. Dig. 1. 3. 16.

Between equal equities the law must prevail. See Equity. This is hardly of general application.

Bis dat qui cito dat. He pays twice who pays promptly.

Bis idem exigi bona fides non patitur, et in satisfactionibus non permittitur amplius fieri quam semel factum est. Good faith does not suffer the same thing to be exacted twice; and in making satisfaction, it is not permitted that more should be done after satisfaction is once made. 9 Co. 63; Dig. 50. 17. 57.

Bona fide possessor facit fructus consumptos suos. By good faith a possessor makes the fruits consumed his own. Trayner, Max. 57.

Bona fides exigit ut quod convenit fiat. Good faith demands that what is agreed upon shall be done. Dig. 19. 20. 21; id. 19. 1. 50; id. 50. 8. 2. 13.

Bona fides non patitur ut bis idem exigatur. Good faith does not allow us to demand twice the payment of the same thing. Dig. 50. 17. 57; Broom, Max. 338, n; 4 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 143.

Bonæ fidei possessor in id tantum quod ad se pervenerit tenetur. A bona fide possessor is bound for that only which has come to him. 2 Inst. 285; Gro. de J. B. lib. 2, c. 10, § 3 et seq.

Boni judicis est ampliare jurisdictionem (or justitiam). See 1 Burr. 304. It is the part of a good judge to enlarge his jurisdiction; that is, his remedial authority. Broom, Max. 79, 80, 82; Chanc. Prec. 329; 1 Wils. 284; 9 M. & W. 818; 1 C. B. n. s. 255; 4 Bingh. N. C. 233; 4 Scott N. R. 229.

Boni judicis est causas litium dirimere. It is the duty of a good judge to remove causes of litigation. 2 Inst. 306.

Boni judicis est judicium sine dilatione mandare executioni. It is the duty of a good judge to cause execution to issue on a judgment without delay. Co. Litt. 289 b.

Boni judicis est lites dirirnere, ne lis ex lite oritur, et interest reipublicæ ut sint fines litium. It is the duty of a good judge to prevent litigations, that suit may not grow out of suit, and it concerns the welfare of a state that an end be put to litigation. 4 Co. 15 b; 5 id. 31 a; Bart. Max. 191.

Bonum necessarium extra terminos necessitatis non est bonum. A thing good from necessity is not good beyond the limits of the necessity. Hob. 144.

Bonus judex secundum æquum et bonum judicat, et æquitatem stricto juri præfert. A good judge decides according to justice and right, and prefers equity to strict law. Co. Litt. 24; 4 Term 344; 2 Q. B. 837; Broom, Max. 80.

Both law and equity favor the diligent creditor.

Breve judiciale debet æqui suum originale, et accessorium suum principale. A judicial writ ought to follow its original, and an accessory its principal. Jenk. Cent. 292.

Breve judiciale non cadit pro defectu formæ. A judicial writ fails not through defect of form. Jenk. Cent. 43.

By an acquittance for the last payment all other arrearages are discharged. Noy 40.

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Career ad homines custodiendos, non ad puniendos, dari debet. A prison ought to be used for the custody, not the punishment, of persons. Co. Litt. 260. See Dig. 48. 19. 8. 9.

Casus fortuitus non est sperandus, et nemo tenetur divinare. A fortuitous event is not to be foreseen, and no person is held bound to foretell it. 4 Co. 66.

Casus fortuitus non est supponendus. A fortuitous event is not to be presumed. Hardr. 82, arg.

Casus omissus et oblivioni datus dispositioni communis juris relinquitur. A case omitted and forgotten is left to the disposal of the common law. 5 Co. 37; Broom, Max. 46; 1 Exch. 476.

Casus omissus pro omisso habendus est. A case omitted is to be held as (intentionally) omitted. Trayner, Max. 67.

Catalla juste possessa amitti non possunt. Chattels rightly possessed cannot be lost. Jenk. Cent. 28.

Catalla reputantur inter minima in lege. Chattels are considered in law among the minor things. Jenk. Cent. 52.

Causa causæ est causa causati. The cause of a cause is the cause of the effect. Freem. 3.9; 12 Mod. 639.

Causa causantis causa est causati. The cause of the thing causing is the cause of the effect. 4 Campb. 284; 4 Gray (Mass.) 398.

Causa et origo est materia negotii. Cause and origin is the material of business. 1 Co. 99; Wing. Max. 41, Max. 21.

Causa proxima non remota spectatur. The immediate and not the remote cause is to be considered. Bacon, Max. Reg. 1; Broom, Max. 216; Story, Bailm. 515; 3 Kent 374; 2 East 348; 10 Wall. (U. S.) 191, 19 L. Ed. 909; L. R. 1 C. P. 320; 4 Am. L. Rev. 201. See Causa Proxima.

Causa vaga et incerta non est causa rationabilis. A vague and uncertain cause is not a reasonable cause. 5 Co. 67.

Causæ dotis, vitæ, libertatis, fisci sunt inter favorabilia in lege. Causes of dower, life, liberty, revenue, are among the things favored in law. Co. Litt. 341.

Causæ ecclesiæ publicis causis æquiparantur. The cause of the church is equal to a public cause. Co. Litt. 34L.

Caveat emptor. Let the buyer beware. 110 U. S. 116, 3 Sup. Ct. 537, 28 L. Ed. 86.

Caveat emptor qui ignorare non debuit quod jus alienum emit. Let a buyer beware: for he ought not to be ignorant of what they are when he buys the rights of another. Hob. 99; Broom, Max. 768; Co. Litt. 132 a; 3 Taunt. 439; Sugd. V. & P. 328; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. ch. 6. See Caveat Emptor.

Caveat venditor. Let the seller beware. Lofft 328; 2 Barh. (N. Y.) 323; 5 N. Y. 73.

Caveat viator. Let the wayfarer beware. Broom, Max. 387 n; 10 Exch. 774.

Cavendum est a fragmentis. Beware of fragments. Bacon, Aph. 26.

Certa debet esse intentio, et narratio et certum fundamentum, et certa res quæ deducitur in judicium. The intention, declaration, foundation, and thing brought to judgment ought to be certain. Co. Litt. 303 a.

Certum est quod certum reddi potest. That is certain which can be made certain. Noy, Max. 481; Co. Litt. 45 b, 96 a, 142 a; 2 Bla. Com. 143; 2 M. & S. 50; Broom, Max. 623; 3 Term 463; 3 M. & K. 353; 11 Cash. (Mass.) 380.

Cessante causa, cessat effectus. The cause ceasing, the effect must cease. 1 Exch. 430; Broom, Max. 160.

Cessante ratione legis cessat et ipsa lex. When the reason of the law ceases, so does the law itself. 4 Co. 38; 7 id. 69; Co. Litt 70 b, 122 a; Broom, Max. 159; 13 East 348; 4 Bingh. n. c. 388; 11 Pa. 273; 54 id. 201. See Dig. 35. 1. 72. 6. The doctrine is criticised by Austin, lect. 37.

Cessante statu primitivo, cessat derivativus. The primary state ceasing, the derivative ceases. 8 Co. 34; Broom, Max. 495; 4 Kent 32.

C’est le crime qui fait la honte, et non pas Véchafaud. It is the crime which causes the shame, and not the scaffold.

Cestuy que doit inheriter al père doit inheriter al fils. He who would have been heir to the father of the deceased shall also be heir of the son. Fitz. Abr. Descent 2; 2 Bla. Com. 239, 250.

Chacea est ad communem, legem. A chace is by common law. Reg. Brev. 806.

Charta de non ente non valet. A deed of a thing not in being is not valid. Co. Litt. 36.

Chartarum super fidem, mortuis testibus, ad patriam de necessitudine recurrendum est. The witnesses being dead, the truth of deeds must, of necessity, be referred to the country. Co. Litt. 36.

Chirographum opud debitorem repertum præsumitur solutum. Where the evidence of a debt is found in the possession of the debtor it is presumed to be paid. Halk. Max. 30. See 14 M. & W. 379.

Chirographum non extans præsumitur solutum. Where the evidence of a debt is not in existence it is presumed to have been discharged. Trayner, Max. 73.

Circuitus est evitandus. Circuity is to be avoided. Co. Litt. 384 a; Wing. Max. 179; Broom, Max. 343; 5 Co. 31 a; 15 M. & W. 208; 5 Exch. 829.

Citatio est de juri naturali. A summons is by natural right. Cases in Banco Regis Will. III. 453.

Citationes non concedantur priusquam exprimatur super qua re fieri debet citatio. Citations should not be granted before it is stated about what matter the citation is to be made. (A maxim of ecclesiastical law.) 12. Co. 44.

Clausula generalis de residuo non ea complectitur quæ non ejusdem sint generis cum iis quæ speciatim dicta fuerant. A general clause of remainder does not embrace those things which are not of the same kind with those which had been specially mentioned. Lofft 419.

Clausula generalis non refertur ad expressa. A general clause does not refer to things expressed. 8 Co. 154.

Clausula quæ abrogationem excludit ab initio non valet. A clause in a law which precludes its abrogation is invalid from the beginning. Bacon, Max. Reg. 19, p. 89; 2 Dwarris Stat. 673; Broom, Max. 27.

Clausula vel dispositio inutilis per præsumptionem remotam vel causam, ex post facto non fulcitur. A useless clause or disposition is not supported by a remote presumption, or by a cause arising afterwards. Bacon, Max. Reg. 21; Broom, Max. 672.

Clausulæ inconsuetæ semper inducunt suspicionem. Unusual clauses always arouse suspicion. 3 Co. 81; Broom, Max. 290; 1 Sm. L. Cas. 1.

Cogitationis pænam nemo meretur. No one is punished for his thoughts.

Cogitationis pænam nemo patitur. No one is punished for his thoughts. Broom, Max. 311; Salmond, Jurispr. 639.

Cohæredes una persona censentur, propter unitatem juris quod habent. Coheirs are deemed as one person, on account of the unity of right which they possess. Co. Litt. 163.

Commercium jure gentium commune esse debet, et non in monopolium et privatum paucorum quæstum convertendum. Commerce, by the law of nations, ought to be common, and not to be converted into a monopoly and the private gain of a few. 3 Inst. 181, in marg.

Commodum ex injuria sua non habere debet. A man ought not to derive any benefit from his own wrong. Jenk. Cent. 161; Finch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 62.

Common opinion is good authority in law. Co. Litt. 186 a.

Communis error facit jus. A common error makes law. (What was at first illegal is presumed, when repeated many times, to have acquired the force of usage; and then it would be wrong to depart from it.) 4 Inst. 240; Broom, Max. 139, 140; 1 Ld. Raym. 42; 6 CI. & F. 172; 3 M. & S. 396; 4 N. H. 458; 2 Mass. 357; 1 Dall. (U. S.) 13, 1 L. Ed. 15. The converse of this maxim is communis error non facit jus. A common error does not make law. 4 Inst. 242; 3 Term, 725; 6 id. 564.

Compendia sunt dispendia. Abridgments are hindrances. Co. Litt. 305.

Compromissarii sunt judices. Arbitrators are judges. Jenk. Cent. 128.

Concessio per regem fieri debet de certitudine. A grant by the king ought to be a grant of a certainty. 9 Coke 46.

Concessio versus concedentem latam interpretationem habere debet. A grant ought to have a liberal interpretation against the grantor. Jenk. Cent 279.

Concordare leges legibus est optimus interpretandi modus. To make laws agree with other laws is the best mode of interpreting them. Halkers. 70.

Conditio beneficialis, quæ statum construit, benigne secundum verborum intentionem est interpretanda; odiosa autem, quæ statum destruit, stricte, secundum verborum proprietatem, accipienda. A beneficial condition, which creates an estate, ought to be construed favorably according to the intention of the words; but an odious condition, which destroys an estate, ought to be construed strictly, according to the letter. 8 Co. 90; Shep. Touch. 134.

Conditio dicitur, cum quid in casum incertum qui potest tendere ad esse aut non esse confertur. It is called a condition when something is given on an uncertain event which may or may not come into existence. Co. Litt. 201.

Conditio illicita habetur pro non adjecta. An unlawful condition is deemed as not annexed.

Conditio præcedens adimpleri debet priusquam sequatur effectus. A condition precedent must be fulfilled before the effect can follow. Co. Litt. 201.

Conditiones quælibet odiosæ; maxime autem contra matrimonium et commercium. Any conditions are odious, but especially those against matrimony and commerce. Lofft 644.

Confessio facta in judicio omni probatione major est. A confession made in court is of greater effect than any proof. Jenk. Cent. 102.

Confessus in judicio pro judicato habetur et quodammodo sua sententia damnatur. A person who has confessed in court is deemed to have had judgment passed upon him, and, in a manner, is condemned by his own sentence. 11 Co. 30. See Dig. 42. 2. 1.

Confirmare est id quod prius infirmum fuit simut firmare. To confirm is to make firm what before was not firm. Co. Litt. 295.

Confirmare nemo potest priusquam jus ei acciderit. No one can confirm before the right accrues to him. 10 Co. 48.

Confirmat usum qui tollit abusum. He confirms a use who removes an abuse. F. Moore 764.

Confirmatio est nulla, ubi donum præcedens est invalidum. A confirmation is null where the preceding gift is invalid. Co. Litt. 295; F. Moore 764.

Confirmatio omnea supplet defectus, licet id quod actum est ab initio non valuit. Confirmation supplies all defects, though that which has been done was not valid at the beginning. Co. Litt. 295 b.

Conjunctio mariti et feminæ est de jure naturæ. The union of husband and wife is according to the law of nature.

Consensus facit legem. Consent makes the law. (A contract is law between the parties agreeing to be bound by it.) Branch, Princ.

Consensus non concubitus facit matrimonium. Consent, not coition, constitutes marriage. Co. Litt. 33 a; Dig. 50. 17. 30. See 10 Cl. & F. 534; Broom, Max. 505.

Consensus tollit errorem. Consent removes or obviates a mistake. Co. Litt. 126; 2 Inst 123; Broom, Max. 135; 1 Bingh. n. c. 68; 6 E. & B. 338; 5 Cush. (Mass.) 55; 9 Gray (Mass.) 386; 11 Allen (Mass.) 138; 7 Johns. (N. Y.) 611; 4 Pa. 335; 65 id. 190.

Consensus voluntas multorum ad quos res pertinet simul juncta. Consent is the united agreement of several interested in one subject-matter. Dav. 48; Branch, Princ.

Consentientes et agentes pari pæna plectentur. Those consenting and those perpetrating shall receive the same punishment. 5 Co. 80.

Consentire matrimonio non possunt infra annos nubiles. Persons cannot consent to marriage before marriageable years. 5 Co. 80; 6 id. 22.

Consilia multorum requiruntur in magnis. The advice of many persons is requisite in great affairs. 4 Inst. 1.

Constitutum esse eam domum unicuiqus nostrum debere existimari, ubi quisque sedes et tabulas haberet, suarumque rerum constitutionem fecisset. It is settled that that is to be considered the home of each one of us where he may have his habitation and account-books, and where he may have made an establishment of his business. Dig. 50. 16. 203.

Constructio legis non facit injuriam. The construction of the law does not work an injury. Co. Litt 183; Broom, Max. 603.

Consuetude contra rationem introducta, potius usurpatio quam consuetudo appellari debet. A custom introduced against reason ought rather to be called an usurpation than a custom. Co. Litt 113; Bart. Max. 109.

Consuetudo debet esse certa. A custom ought to tie certain. Dav. 33.

Consuetudo debet esse certa, nam incerta pro nullius habetur. Custom ought to be fixed, for if variable it is held as of no account. Trayner, Max. 96.

Consuetudo est altera lex. Custom is another law. 4 Co. 21.

Consuetudo est optimus interpres legum. Custom is the best expounder of the law. 2 Inst. 18; Dig. 1. 3. 37; Jenk. Cent. 273.

Consuetudo et communis assuetudo vincit legem non scriptam, si sit specialis; et interpretatur legem scriptam, si lex sit generalis. Custom and common usage overcome the unwritten law, if it be special; and interpret the written law if the law be general. Jenk. Cent. 273.

Consuetudo ex certa causa rationabili usitata privat communem legem. Custom observed by reason of a certain and reasonable cause supersedes the common law. Co. Litt. 33 b. See Broom, Legal Max. 919.

Consuetudo, licet sit magnæ auctoritatis, nunquam tamen præjudicat manifestæ veritati. A custom, though it be of great authority, should never, however, be prejudicial to manifest truth. 4 Co. 18.

Consuetudo loci observanda est. The custom of the place is to be observed. Broom, Max. 918; 4 Co. 28 b; 6 id. 67; 10 id. 139; 4 C. B. 48.

Consuetudo neque injuria oriri, neque tolli protest. A custom can neither arise, nor be abolished, by a wrong. Lofft 340.

Consuetudo non habitur in consequentiam. Custom is not to be drawn into a precedent. 3 Keble 499.

Consuetudo præscripta et legitima vincit legem. A prescriptive and lawful custom overrides the law. Co. Litt. 113.

Consuetudo regni Angliæ est lex Angliæ. The custom of the kingdom of England is the law of England. Jenk. Cent. 119.

Consuetudo semel reprobata non potest amplius induci. A custom once disallowed cannot again be set up. Dav. 33; Grounds & Rud. of Law 53.

Consuetudo vincit communem legem. Custom overrules common law. 1 Rop. H. & W. 351; Co. Litt. 33 b.

Consuetudo volentes ducit, lex nolentes trahit. Custom leads the willing, law drags the unwilling. Jenk. Cent. 274.

Contemporanea expositio est optima et fortissima in lege. A contemporaneous exposition is the best and most powerful in the law. 2 Inst. 11; 3 Co. 7; Broom, Max. 682.

Contestatio litis eget terminos contradictarios. An issue requires terms of contradiction (that is, there can be no issue without an affirmative on one side and a negative on the other). Jenk. Cent. 117.

Contra legem facit qui id facit quod lex prohibit; in fraudem vero qui, salvis verbis legis, sententiam ejus circumvenit. He acts contrary to the law who does what the law prohibits; but he acts in fraud of the law who, the letter of the law being inviolate, uses the law contrary to its intention. Dig. 1. 3. 29.

Contra negantem principia non jest disputandum. There is no disputing against one who denies principles. Co. Litt. 43; Grounds & Rud. of Law 57.

Contra non valentem agere nulla currit præscriptio. No prescription runs against a person unable to act. Broom, Max. 903; Evans Pothier 451.

Contra veritatem lex nunquam aliquid permittit. The law never suffers anything contrary to truth. 2 Inst. 252. (But sometimes it allows a conclusive presumption in opposition to truth.)

Contractatio rei alienae animo furandi, est furtum. The touching or removing of another’s property, with an intention of stealing, is theft. Jenk. Cent. 132.

Contractus ex turpi causa, vel contra bonos mores nullus est. A contract founded on an unlawful consideration or against good morals is null. Hob. 167; Dig. 2. 14. 27. 4.

Contractus legem ex conventione accipiunt. The agreement of the parties makes the law of the contract. Dig. 16. 3. 1. 6.

Contrariorum contraria est ratio. The reason of contrary things is contrary. Hob. 344.

Conventio privatorum non potest publico juri derogare. An agreement of private persons cannot derogate from public right. Wing. Max. 201; Co. Litt. 166 a; Dig. 50. 17. 45. 1.

Conventio vincit legem. The agreement of the parties overrides the law. Story, Ag. § 368; 6 Taunt. 430; 52 Pa. 96; 18 Pick. (Mass.) 19, 273; 8 Cush. (Mass.) 166; 14 Gray (Mass.) 446. See Dig. 16. 3. 1. 6.

Copulatio verborum indicat acceptationem in eodem sensu. Coupling words together shows that they ought to be understood in the same sense. Bacon, Max. Reg. 3; Broom, Max. 588; 8 Allen (Mass.) 85; 11 id. 470.

Corporalis injuria non recipit aestimationem de futuro. A personal injury does not receive satisfaction from a future course of proceeding. Bacon, Max. Reg. 6; 3 How. St. Tr. 71; Broom, Max. 278.

Corpus humanum non recipit æstimationem. A human body is not susceptible of appraisement. Hob. 59.

Corruptio optimi pessima. Used by Holmes, J., in 221 U. S. 263, 31 Sup. Ct. 555, 55 L. Ed. 729, to indicate that the application of sound principles should not be turned to support a conclusion manifestly improper.

Creditorum appellatione non hi tantum accipiuntur qui pecuniam crediderunt, sed omnes quibus ex qualibet causa debetur. Under the head of creditors are included not alone those who have lent money, but all to whom from any cause a debt is owing. Dig. 50. 16. 11.

Crescente malitia crescere debet et pæna. The evil intent increasing, punishment ought also to increase. 2 Inst. 479 n.

Crimen falsi dicitur, cum quis illicitus, cui non fuerit ad hæc data auctoritas, de sigillo regis rapto vel invento brevia cartasve consignaverit. The crimen falsi is when any one illicitly, to whom power has not been given for such purposes, has signed writs or grants with the king’s seal, which he has either stolen or found. Fleta, 1. 1. c. 23.

Crimen læsæ majestatis omnia alia crimina excedit quoad pænam. The crime of treason exceeds all other crimes as far as its punishment is concerned. 3 Inst. 210; Bart. Max. 108.

Crimen omnia ex se nata vitiat. Crime vitiates everything which springs from it. 5 Hill (N. Y.) 523.

Crimen trahit personam. The crime brings with it the person (i. e. the commission of a crime gives the courts of the place where it is committed jurisdiction over the person of the offender). 3 Denio (N. Y.) 190, 210.

Crimina morte extinguuntur. Crimes are extinguished by death.

Cui jurisdictio data est, ea quoque concessa esse videntur sine quibus jurisdictio explicari non potest. To whom jurisdiction is given, to him those things also are held to be granted without which the jurisdiction cannot be exercised. Dig. 2. 1, 2; 1 Woodd. Lect. Introd. Ixxi.; 1 Kent 339.

Cui jus est donandi cidem et vendendi et concedendi jus est. He who has a right to give has also a right to sell and to grant. Dig. 50. 17. 163.

Cui licet quod majus non debet quod minus est non licere. He who has authority to the more important act shall not be debarred from doing that of less importance. 4 Coke 23; Co. Litt. 355 b; 2 Inst. 307; Noy, Max. 26; Finch, Law 22; 3 Mod. 382, 392; Broom, Max. 176; Dig. 50. 70. 21.

Cui pater est populus non habet ille patrem. He to whom the people is father has not a father. Co Litt. 123.

Cuicunque aliquid conceditur, conceditur etiam et id sine quo res ipsa non esse potuit. Whenever anything is granted that also is granted without which the thing itself could not exist.

Cuicunque aliquis quid concedit concedere videtur et id sine quo res ipsa esse non potuit. Whoever grants a thing is supposed also tacitly to grant that without which the grant itself would be of no effect. 11 Co. 52; Broom, Max. 479; Hob. 234; Vaugh. 109; 11 Exch. 775; Shep. Touch. 89; Co. Litt. 66 a; Short, Ry. Bonds 180.

Cuilibet in arte sua perito est credendum. Credence should be given to one skilled in his peculiar art. Co. Litt. 125; 1 Bla. Com. 75; Phill. Ev. Cowen & H. notes, 759; 1 Hagg. Ecc. 727; 11 CI. & F. 85; Broom, Max. 932, 934. See Expert; Opinion.

Cuiquc in sua arte credendum est. Every one is to be believed in his own art.

Cujus est commodum, ejus est onus. He who has the benefit has also the burden. 3 Mass. 53.

Cujus est dare, ejus est disponere. He who has a right to give has the right of disposition. Wing. Max. 22; Broom, Max. 459; 2 Co. 71; 5 W. & S. (Pa.) 330.

Cujus est divisio, alterius est electio. Whichever of two parties has the division, the other has the choice. Co. Litt. 166.

Cujus est dominium, ejus est periculum. The risk lies upon the owner of the subject. Trayner, Max. 114.

Cujus est instituere, ejus est abrogare. Whoever can institute can also abrogate. Sydney, Gov. 15; Broom; Max. 878 n.

Cujus est solum, ejus est usque ad cælum. He who owns the soil owns it up to the sky. Broom. Max. 395; Shep. Touch. 90; 2 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 18; 9 Co. 54; 4 Campb. 219; 11 Exch. 822; 6 E. & B. 76; Salmond, Jurispr. 640. See Land.

Cujus juris (i. e. jurisdictionis) est principale, ejusdem juris erit accessorium. He who has jurisdiction of the principal has also of the accessory. 2 Inst. 493; Bract. 481.

Cujus per errorem dati repetitio est, ejus consulto dati donatio est. That which, when given through mistake can be recovered back, when given with knowledge of the facts, is a gift. Dig. 50. 17. 53.

Cujusque rei potissima pars principium est. The principal part of everything is the beginning. Dig. 1. 2. 1; 10 Co. 49.

Culpa caret, qui scit sed prohibere non potest. He is clear of blame who knows but cannot prevent. Dig. 50. 17. 50.

Culpa est immiscere se rei ad se non pertinenti. It is a fault to meddle with what does not belong to or does not concern you. Dig. 50. 17. 36; 2 Inst. 208.

Culpa lata dolo æquiparatur. Gross neglect is equivalent to fraud. Dig. 11. 6. 1.

Culpa tenet suos auctores. A fault binds its own authors. Erskine, Inst. b. 4, tit. 1, § 14; 6 Bell, App. Cas. 539.

Culpa pæna par esto. Let the punishment be porportioned to the crime. Branch, Princ.

Cum actio fuerit mere criminalis, institui poterit ab initio criminaliter vel civiliter. When an action is merely criminal, it can be instituted from the beginning either criminally or civilly. Bract. 102.

Cum aliquis renunciaverit societati solvitur societas. When any partner renounces the partnership, the partnership is dissolved. Trayner, Max. 118.

Cum confitente sponte mitius est agendum. One making a voluntary confession is to be dealt with more mercifully. Bart. Max. 68; 4 Inst. 66; Branch, Princ.

Cum de lucro duorum quaeritur melior est causa possidentis. When the question of gain lies between two, the cause of the possessor is the better. Dig. 50. 17. 196.

Cum duo inter se pugnantia reperiuntur in testamento, ultimum ratum est. When two things repugnant to each other are found in a will, the last is to be effective. Co. Litt. 112; Shep. Touch. 451; Broom, Max. 583; 2 Jarm. Wills, 5th Am. ed. 44; 16 Johns. (N. Y.) 146; 1 Phill. 536.

Cum in corpore dissentitur apparet nullam esse acceptionem. When there is a disagreement in the substance, t appears that there is no acceptance. 12 Allen (Mass.) 44.

Cum in testamento ambigue aut etiam perperam scriptum, est benigne interpretari, et secundum id quod credibile est cogitatum credendum est. When an ambiguous or even an erroneous expression occurs in a will, it should be construed liberally, and in accordance with the testator’s probable meaning. Dig. 34. 5. 24; Broom, Max. 668; 3 Pothier, ad Pand 46.

Cum legitimae nuptiæ factæ sunt, patrem liberi sequuntur. Children born under a legitimate marriage follow the condition of the father.

Cum par delictum est duorum, semper oneratur petitor, et melior habetur possessoris causa. Where two parties are equally in fault, the claimant always is at a disadvantage, and the party in possession has the better cause. Dig. 50. 17. 154; Broom, Max. 720.

Curia parliamenti suis propriis legibus subsistit. The court of parliament is governed by its own peculiar laws. 4 Inst. 60; Broom, Max. 85; 12 C. B. 413.

Curiosa et captiosa interpretatio in lege reprobatur. A curious and captious interpretation of the law is not to be adopted. 1 Bulstr. 6.

Currit tempus contra desides et sui juris contemptores. Time runs against the slothful and those who neglect their rights. Bract. 100 b; Fleta, lib 4, c. 6, § 12.

Cursus curiæ est lex curiæ. The practice of the court is the law of the court. 3 Bulstr. 53; Broom, Max. 133; 12 C. B. 414; 17 Q. B. 85; 8 Exch. 199; 2 M. & S. 25; 15 East 2-6; 12 M. & W. 7; 4 My. & C. 635; 3 Scott N. B. 599.

Custom, is the best interpreter of the law. 4 Inst. 75; 2 Eden 74; 6 Cra. (U. S.) 32, 3 L. Ed. 25; I S. & R. (Pa.) 106; 2 Barh. Ch. (N. Y.) 232, 269.

Custome serra prise stricte. Custom must be taken strictly. Jenk. Cent. 83.

Custos statum haeredis in custodia existentis meliorem non deteriorem facere potest. A guardian can make the estate of an heir living under his guardianship better, not worse. 7 Co. 7.

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Dans et retinens, nihil dat. One who gives and yet retains does not give effectually. Trayner, Max. 129.

Datur digniori. It is given to the more worthy. 2 Ventr. 268.

De fide et officio judicis non recipitur quæstio, sed de scientia sive sit error juris sive facti. The good faith and honesty of purpose of a judge cannot be questioned, but his decision may be impugned for error either of law or of fact. Bacon, Max. Reg. 17; 5 Johns. (N. Y.) 291; 1 N. Y. 45; Broom, Max, 97.

De jure judices, de facto juratores, respondent. The judges find the law, the jury the facts. See Co. Litt. 295; Broom, Max. 99.

De majori et minori non variant jura. Concerning greater and less laws do not vary. 2 Vera. 552.

De minimis non curat lex. The law does not notice or concern itself with trifling matters. Broom, Max. 142; 2 Inst. 306; 97 Mass. 83; 118 id. 175; 5 Hill (N. Y.) 170; 12 Can. L. J. 105, 130; 67 Mo. App. 142; 38. Pa. Supr. Ct. 60. See Salmond, Jurispr. 640.

De morte hominis nulla est cunctatio longa. When the death of a human being is concerned, no delay is long. Co. Litt. 134. (When the question is concerning the life or death of a man no delay is too long to admit of inquiring into facts.)

De nomine proprio non est curandum cum in substantia non erretur; quia nomina mutabilia sunt, res autem immobiles. As to the proper name, it is not to be regarded when one errs not in substance; because names are changeable, but things are immutable. 6 Co. 66.

De non apparentibus et non existentibus eadem est ratio. The law is the same respecting things which do not appear and things which do not exist. 28 N. C. 61; 12 How. (U. S.) 253, 13 L. Ed. 974; 5 Co. 6; 6 Bingh. N. c. 453; 7 CI. & F. 872; 5 C. B. 53; 8 id. 286; 1 Term 404; 4 Mass. 685; 8 id. 40; Broom, Max. 163, 166.

De nullo, quod est sua natura indivisibile et divisionem non patitur, nullam partem habebit vidua, sed satisfaciat ei ad valentiam. A widow shall have no part from that which in its own nature is indivisible, and is not susceptible of division; but let [the heir] satisfy her with an equivalent. Co. Litt. 32.

De similibus ad similia eadem ratione procedendum est. From similars to similars we are to proceed by the same rule. Branch, Princ.

De similibus idem est judicium. Concerning similars the judgment is the same. 7 Co. 18.

Debet esse finis litium. There ought to be an end of litigation. Jenk. Cent. 61.

Debet quis juri subjacere ubi delinquit. Every one ought to be subject to the law ot the place where he offends. 3 Inst. 34; Finch, Law, 14, 36; Wing. Max. 113; 3 Co. 231; 8 Scott N. R. 567.

Debet sua cuique domus esse perfugium tutissimum. Every man’s house should be a perfectly safe refuge. 12 Johns. (N. Y.) 31, 64.

Debile fundamentum fallit opus. Where there is a weak foundation, the work falls. Broom, Max. 180, 182.

Debita sequuntur personam debitoris. Debts follow the person of the debtor. Story, Confi. Laws § 362; 2 Kent 429; Halkers. Max. 13.

Debitor non præsumitur donare. A debtor is not presumed to make a gift. See 1 Kames, Eq. 212; Dig. 50. 16. 108: 1 P. Wms. 239; Wh. & Tud. L. Cas. Eq. 378; see Payment.

Debitorum pactionibus, creditorum petitio nec tolli nec minui potest. The right of creditors to sue cannot be taken away or lessened by the contracts of their debtors. Bart. Max. 115; Pothier, Obi. 108; Broom, Max. 697.

Debitum et contractus sunt nullius loci. Debt and contract are of no particular place. 7 Co. 61; 7 M. & G. 1019 n.

Deceptis non decipientibus, jura subveniunt. The laws help persons who are deceived, not those deceiving. Trayner, Max. 149.

Decipi quam fallere est tutius. It is safer to be deceived than to deceive. Lofft 396.

Deficiente uno sanguine, non potest esse hæres. One blood being wanted, one cannot be heir. 3 Co. 41.

Delegata potestas non potest delegari. A delegated authority cannot be delegated. Broom, Max. 839; 2 Inst. 597; 5 Bingh. N. c. 310; Story, Ag. § 13; 11 How. (U. S.) 233, 13 L. Ed. 676; 15 Gray (Mass.) 403. See Delegation. This is said to be an extension of a judice judex delegatus judicis dandi potestatem non habet, which, in that form, applied to officers whose duties were judicial, but In the English law the maxim has been applied to agency. See 20 L. Mag. & Rev. 293.

Delegatus non potest delegare. A delegate (or deputy) cannot appoint another. Story, Ag. § 13; Broom, Max. 840, 842; 9 Co. 77; 2 Scott N. R. 509; 12 M. & W. 712; 6 Exch. 156; 8 C. B. 627.

Delicatus debitor est odiosus in lege. A delicate debtor is hateful in the law. 2 Bulstr. 148.

Delinquens per iram provocatus puniri debet mitius. A delinquent provoked by anger ought to be punished more mildly. 3 Inst. 65.

Derivativa potestas non potest esse major primitiva. The power which is derived cannot be greater than that from which it is derived. Wing. Max. 36; Finch. Law, b. 1, c. 3, p. 11.

Designatio unius est exclusio alterius, et expressum facit cessare tacitum. The appointment or designation of one is the exclusion of the other; and that which is expressed prevails over that which is implied. Co. Litt. 210.

Deus solus hæredem facere potest, non homo. God alone, and not man, can make an heir. Co. Litt. 7 b; cited 5 B. & C. 440, 454; Broom, Max. 616.

Dies dominicus non est juridicus. Sunday is not a judicial day. Co. Litt. 135 a; 2 Saund. 291; Broom, Max. 21; Finch, Law 7; Noy, Max. 2; Plowd. 265; 3 D. & L. 328; 13 Mass. 327; 17 Pick. (Mass.) 109. See Sunday.

Dies inceptus pro completo habetur. A day begun is held as complete.

Dies incertus pro conditione habetur. A day uncertain is held as a condition. Bell, Dict. Computation of Time.

Dilationes in lege sunt odiosæ. Delays in law are odious. Branch, Princ.

Discretio est discernere per legem quid sit justum. Discretion is to discern through law what is just. 5 Co. 99, 100; 10 id. 140; Broom, Max. 84 n; Inst. 41; 1 W. Bla. 152; 1 Burr. 570; 2 id. 25; 3 Bulstr. 128; 6 Q. B. 700; 5 Gray (Mass.) 204. See Discretion.

Discretio est scire per legem quid sit justum. Discretion consists in knowing what is just in law. 4 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 352, 356.

Disparata non debent jungi. Dissimilar things ought not to be joined. Jenk. Cent. 24.

Dispensatio est vulnus, quod vulnerat jus commune. A dispensation is a wound, because it wounds a common right. Dav. 69; Branch, Princ.

Disseisinam satisfacit, qui uti non permittit possessorem, vel minus commode, licet omnino non expellat. He makes disseisin who does not permit the possessor to enjoy, or makes his enjoyment less useful, although he does not expel him altogether. Co. Litt. 331; Bract. lib. 4, tr. 2.

Dissimilium dissimilis est ratio. Of dissimilars the rule is dissimilar. Co. Litt. 191 a.

Dissimulatione tollitur injuria. Injury is wiped out by reconciliation. Erskine, Inst. b. 4, tit. 4, § 108.

Distinguenda sunt tempora; aliud est facere, aliud perficere. Times must be distinguished; it is one thing to do a thing, another to complete it. 3 Leon. 243; Branch, Princ. See 1 Co. 16 a; 2 Pick. (Mass.) 327.

Distinguenda sunt tempora; distingue tempora, et concordabis leges. Times are to be distinguished; distinguish time, and you will harmonize laws. 1 Co. 24.

Divinatio non interpretatio est, quæ omnino recedit a litera. It is a guess, not interpretation, which altogether departs from the letter. Bacon, Max. Reg. 3, p. 47.

Dolosus versatur in generalibus. A deceiver deats in generalities. 2 Co. 34; 2 Bulstr. 226; Lofft 782; 1 Rolle 157; Wing. Max. 636; Broom, Max. 289.

Dolum, ex indiciis perspicuis probari convenit. Fraud should be proved by clear proofs. Code 2. 21. 6; 1 Story, Contr. § 625.

Dolus auctoris non nocet successori. The fraud of a predecessor does not prejudice the successor.

Dolus circuitu non purgatur. Fraud is not purged by circuity. Bacon, Max. Reg. 1; Noy, Max. 9, 12; Broom, Max. 228; 6 E. & B. 948.

Dolus et fraus nemini patrocinentur (patrocinari debent). Deceit and fraud shall excuse or benefit no man (they themselves need to be excused). Year B. 14 Hen. VIII. 8; Story, Eq. Jur. § 395; 3 Co. 78; 2 Fonblanque, Eq. b. 2, ch. 6, § 3.

Dolus latet in generalibus. Fraud lurks in generalities. Trayner, Max. 162.

Dolus versatur in generalibus. Fraud deals in generalities. Trayner, Max. 162.

Dominium non potest esse in pendenti. The right of property cannot be in abeyance. Halkers. Max. 39.

Domus sua cuique est tutissimum refugium. Every man’s house is his castle. 5 Co. 91, 92; 90 III. 229; Broom, Max. 432; 1 Hale, Pl. Cr. 481; Foster, Hom. 320; 8 Q. B. 757; 16 id. 546, 556; 19 How. St. Tr. 1030. See Arrest; Self-Defence; Defence; Dig. 50. 17. 103.

Domus tutissimum cuique refugium atque receptaculum. The habitation of each one is an inviolable asylum for him. Dig. 2. 4, 18.

Dona clandestina sunt semper suspiciosa. Clandestine gifts are always suspicious. 3 Co. 81; Noy, Max., 9th ed. 152; 4 B. & C. 652; 1 M. & S. 253; Broom, Max. 289, 290.

Donari videtur quod nullo jure cogente conceditur. That is considered to be given which is granted when no law compels. Dig. 50. 17. 82.

Donatio non præsumitur. A gift is not presumed. Jenk. Cent. 109.

Donatio perficitur possessione accipientis. A gift is rendered complete by the possession of the receiver. See 2 Leigh (Va.) 837; 2 Kent 438.

Donationum alia perfecta, alia incepta et non perfecta; ut si donatio lecta fuit et concessa, ac traditio nondum fuerit subsecuta. Some gifts are perfect, others incipient and not perfect as if a gift were read and agreed to, but delivery had not then followed. Co. Litt. 56.

Donator nunquam desinit possidere antequam donatarius incipiat possidere. A donor never ceases to have possession until the donee obtains possession. Dyer 281; Bract. 41 b.

Dormiunt aliquando leges, nunquam moriuntur. Laws sometimes sleep, but never die. 2 Inst. 161.

Dos de dote peti non debet. Dower ought not to be sought from dower. 4 Co. 122; Co. Litt. 31; 4 Dane, Abr. 671; 1 Washb. R. P. 209; 13 Allen (Mass.) 459.

Doti lex favet; praemium pudoris est, ideo parcatur. The law favors dower; it is the reward of chastity, therefore let it be preserved. Co. Litt. 31; Branch, Princ.

Droit ne done pluis que soit demande. The law gives no more than is demanded. 2 Inst. 286.

Droit ne poet pas morier. Right cannot die. Jenk. Cent. 100.

Duas uxores eodem tempore habere non licet. It is not lawful to have two wives at one time. Inst. 1. 10. 6; 1 Bla. Com. 436.

Duo non possunt in solido unam rem possidere. Two cannot possess one thing each in entirety. Go. Litt. 368; 1 Preston, Abstr. 318; 2 id. 86, 326; 2 Dod. 157; 2 Carth. 76; Broom, Max. 465 n.

Duo sunt instrumenta ad omnes res aut confirmandas aut impugnandas, ratio et auctoritas. There are two instruments lor confirming or impugning every thing, reason and authority. 8 Co. 16.

Duorum in solidum dominium vel possessio esse non potest. Ownership or possession in entirety cannot be in two persons of the same thing. Dig. 13, 6. 5. 15; 1 Mackeldey, Civ. Law 245, § 236; Brac. 28 b.

Duplicationem possibilitatis lex non patitur. The law does not allow a duplication of possibility. 1 Rolle 321.

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Ea est accipienda interpretatio, quæ vitio caret. That interpretation is to be received which is free from fault. Bacon, Max. Reg. 3, b. 47.

Ea quæ commendandi causa in venditionibus dicuntur, si palam appareant venditorem non obligant. Those things which, by way of commendation, are stated at sales, if they are openly apparent, do not bind the seller. Dig. 18. 43. n; Broom, Max. 783.

Ea quæ dari impossibilia sunt, vel quæ in rerum natura non sunt, pro non adjectis habentur. Those things which cannot be given, or which are not in existence, are held as not expressed. Dig. 50. 17. 135.

Ea quæ in curia nostra rite acta sunt, debitæ executioni demandari debent. Whatever is properly done in a court should be reduced to a judgment. Co. Litt. 289 b.

Ea quæ raro accidunt, non temere in agendis negotiis computantur. Those things which rarely happen are not to be taken into account in the transaction of business without sufficient reason. Dig. 60. 17. 64.

Eadem est ratio, eadem est lex. The same reason, the same law. 7 Pick. (Mass.) 493.

Eadem mens præsumitur regis quæ est juris et quæ esse debet, præsertim in dubiis. The mind of the sovereign is presumed to be coincident with that of the law, and with that which ought to be, especially in ambiguous matters. Hob. 154; Broom, Max. 54.

Ecclesia ecclesiæ decimas solvere non debet. It is not the duty of the church to pay tithes to the church. Cro. Eliz. 479.

Ecclesiæ magis favendum est quam personæ. The church is more to be favored than an individual. Godb. 172.

Effectus sequitur causam. The effect follows the cause. Wing. Max. 226.

Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat. The burden of the proof lies upon him who affirms not him who denies. Dig. 22. 3. 2; 1 Phill. Ev. 194, 1 Greeni. Ev. § 74; 3 La. 83 ; 2 Dan. Ch. Pr. 408,

Ei nihil turpe cui nihil satis. Nothing is base to whom nothing is sufficient. 4 Inst. 63.

Ejus est interpretari cujus est condere. It belongs to him to interpret who enacts. Trayner Max. 174.

Ejus est non nolle qui potest velle. He may consent tacitly who may consent expressly. Dig. 50. 17. 3.

Ejus est periculum cujus est dominium aut commodum. He has the risk who has the right of property or advantage. Bart. Max. 33.

Ejus nulla culpa est cui parere necesse sit. No guilt attaches to him who is compelled to obey. Dig. 60. 17. 169; Broom, Max. 12 n.

Electa una via, non datur recursus ad alteram. He who has chosen one way cannot have recourse to another. 10 Toull. n. 170.

Electio est intimu (interna), libera, et spontanea separatio unius rei ab alia, sine compulsione, consistens in animo et voluntate. Election is an internal, free, and spontaneous separation of one thing from another, without compulsion, consisting in intention and will. Dyer 281.

Electio semel facta, et placitum testatum, non patitur regressum. An election once made, and the intent shown, cannot be recalled. Co. Litt. 146. See Election.

Electiones fiant rite et libere sine interruptione aliqua. Election should be made in due form and freely, without any interruption. 2 Inst. 169.

Emptor emit quam minimo potest; venditor vendit quam maximo potest. The buyer buys lor as little as possible; the vender sells for as much as possible. 2 Johns. Ch.- (N. Y.) 256.

En eschange il covient que les estates soient égales. In an exchange it is necessary that the estates be equal. Co. Litt. 60; 2 Hill. R. P. 298.

Enumeratio infirmat regulam in casibus, non enumeratis. Enumeration disaffirms the rule in cases not enumerated. Bacon, Aph. 17.

Enumeratio unius est exclusio alterius. Specification of one thing is an exclusion of the other.

Eodem modo quo oritur, eodem modo dissolvitur. It is discharged in the same way in which it is created. Bacon, Abr. Release; Cro. Eliz. 697; 2 Wms. Saund. 48, n. 1; 11 Wend. (N. Y.) 28; 5 Watts (Pa.) 155.

Eodem modo quo quid constituitur, eodem modo destruitur. In the same way in which anything is constituted. In that way is it destroyed. 6 Co. 63.

Equality is equity. Francis, Max., Max. 3; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3725; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. § 64; 165 U. S. 394, 17 Sup. Ct. 411, 41 L. Ed. 760. See Equity.

Equitas sequitur legem. Equity follows the law. 6 Barb. (N. Y.) 277, 282. Cas. temp. Taib. 52; 1 Sto. Eq. Jur. § 64. Of this maxim it has been said: “Operative only within a very narrow range.” 1 Pom. Eq. Jur. § 427. The reverse is quite as sound a maxim; 9 Harv. L. Rev. 18. “The main business of equity is avowedly to correct and supplement the law.” Phelps, Jurid. Eq. § 237. The English Judicature Act, 1873, provides that when law and equity conflict equity shall prevail.

Equity delights to do justice, and that not by halves. 5 Barb. (N. Y.) 277, 280; Story, Eq. PI. § 72.

Equity follows the law. See Equitas sequitur legem, supra.

Equity looks upon that as done, which ought to be done. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3729; 1 Fonblanque, Eq. b. 1, ch. 6, s. 9, note; 3 Wheat. (U. S.) 563, 4 L. Ed. 460.

Equity suffers not a right without a remedy. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3726.

Equity will not require that to be done which if done would be useless. 67 111. App. 31.

Error fucatus nuda veritate in multis est probabilior; et saepenumero rationibus vincit veritatem error. Error artfully colored is in many things more probable than naked truth; and frequently error conquers truth by argumentation. 2 Co. 73.

Error juris nocet. Error of law is injurious. See 1 Story, Eq. Jur. § 139 n.

Error nominis nunquam nocet, si de identitate rei constat. Mistake in the name never injures, if the identity of the thing is clear. 1 Duer, Ins. 171.

Error qui non resistitur approbatur. An error not resisted is approved. Doct. & St. c. 70.

Error scribentis nocere non debet. An error made by a clerk ought not to injure. 1 Jenk. Cent. 324.

Errorea ad sua principia referre, est refellere. To refer errors to their origin is to refute them. 3 Inst. 15.

Erubescit lex filios castigare parentes. The law blushes when children correct their parents. 8 Co. 116.

Est autem jus publicum et privatum, quod ex naturalibus præceptis aut gentium, aut civilibus est collectum; et quod in jure scripto jus appellatur, id in lege Angliæ rectum esse dicitur. Public and private law is that which is collected from natural precepts, on the one hand of nations, on the other of citizens; and that which in the civil law is called jus, in the law of England is said to be right. Co. Litt. 558.

Est boni judicis ampliare jurisdictionem. It is the part of a good judge to extend the jurisdiction. Gilb. 14.

Eum qui nocentem infamat, non est æquum et bonum ob eam rem condemnari; delicta enim nocentium nota esse oportet et expedit. It is not just and proper that he who speaks ill of a bad man should be condemned on that account; for it is fitting and expedient that the crimes of bad men should be known. Dig. 47. 10. 17; 1 Bla. Com. 125.

Eventus varios res nova semper habet. A new matter always produces various events. Co. Litt. 379.

Every man is presumed to intend the natural and probable consequences of his own voluntary acts. 1 Greenl. Evid. § 18; 9 East. 277; 9 B. & C. 643; 3 Maule & S. 11; Webb, Poll. Torts 35.

Ex antecedentibus et consequentibus fit optima interpretatio. The best interpretation is made from antecedents and consequents. 2 Pars. Contr. 12, n. (r); Broom, Max. 577; 2d Inst. 317; 2 Bla. Com. 379; 1 Bulstr. 101; 15 East 541.

Ex diuturnitate temporis omnia præsumuntur solenniter esse acta. From length of time, all things are presumed to have been done in due form. Co. Litt. 6 Broom, Max. 942; 1 Greenl. Ev. § 20; Best, Et. § 43.

Ex dole malo non oritur actio. A right of action cannot arise out of fraud. Broom, Max. 297, 729 Cowp. 343; 2 C. B. 501; 5 Scott N. R. 558; 10 Mass. 276; 38 Fed. 800. See Void; Contract; Voidable.

Ex facto jus oritur. The law arises out of the fact. 2 Inst. 479; 2 Bla. Com. 329; Broom, Max. 102.

Ex frequenti delicto augetur pæna. Punishment increases with increasing crime. 2 Inst. 479.

Ex maleficio non oritur contractus. A contract cannot arise out of an illegal act. Broom, Max. 734; 1 Term 734; 3 id. 422; 1 H. Bla. 324; 5 E. & B. 999, 1015.

Ex malis moribus bonæ leges natæ sunt. Good laws arise from evil manners. 2 Inst. 161.

Ex multitudine signorum, colligitur identitas vera. From the great number of signs true identity is ascertained. Bacon, Max. Reg. 25; Broom, Max. 638.

Ex nihilo nihil fit. From nothing nothing comes. 13 Wend. (N. Y.) 178, 221; 18 id. 257, 301.

Ex nudo pacto non oritur actio. No action arises on a contract without a consideration. Noy, Max. 24; Broom, Max. 745; 3 Burr. 1670; 2 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 445; Chitty, Contr. 11th Am. ed. 24; 1 Story, Contr. § 525. In Paulus, Sent. II. 14. 1, it is ex nudo pacto inter cives Romanos actio non nascitur. See Nudum Pactum. In the civil law it meant that no contract is binding unless it falls within one of the recognized classes of valid contracts.

Ex pacto illicito non oritur actio. From an illicit contract no action arises. Broom, Max. 742; 7 CI. & F. 729.

Ex procedentibus et consequentibus optima fit interpretatio. The best interpretation is made from things proceeding and following (i. e. the context). 1 Rolle 375.

Ex tota materia emergat resolutio. The construction or explanation should arise out of the whole subject-matter. Wing. Max. 238.

Ex turpi causa non oritur actio. No action arises out of an immoral consideration. Broom, Max. 730; Selw. N. P. 63; 2 Pet. (U. S.) 539, 7 L. Ed. 508; 118 Mass. 299; 38 Fed. 800.

Ex turpi contractu non oritur actio. No action arises on an immoral contract. Dig. 2. 14, 27. 4; 2 Kent 466; 1 Story, Contr. § 592; 22 N. Y. 272.

Exceptio ejus rei cujus petitur dissolutio nulla est. A plea of that matter the solution of which is the object of the action is of no effect. Jenk. Cent. 37.

Exceptio falsi est omnium, ultima. The exception of falsehood is last of all. Trayner, Max. 198.

Exceptio firmat regulam in casibus non exceptis. An exception affirms the rule in cases not excepted. Bacon, Aph. 17.

Exceptio firmat regulam in contrarium. An exception proves an opposite rule. See exceptio probat regulam. Bacon, Aph. 17.

Exceptio nulla est versus actionem quæ exceptionem perimit. There can be no plea against an action which entirely destroys the plea. Jenk. Cent. 106.

Exceptio probat regulam de rebus non exceptis. An exception proves a rule concerning things not excepted. 11 Co. 41; 1 Pick. (Mass.) 371; 22 id. 112, See exceptio firmat regulam in contrarium. The exception proves the rule means that the exception itself constitutes a rule.

Exceptio quae firmat legem exponit legem. An exception which confirms the law, expounds the law. 2 Bulstr. 189.

Exceptio quoque regulam declarat. The exception also declares the rule. Bacon, Aph. 17.

Exceptio semper ultima ponenda est. An exception is always to be put last. 9 Co. 53.

Excessus in jure reprobatur. Excessus in re qualibet jure reprobatur communi. Excess in law is reprehended. Excess in anything is reprehended by common law. 11 Co. 44.

Excusat aut extenuat delictum in capitalibus, quod non operatur idem in civilibus. That excuses or extenuates a wrong in capital causes which does not have effect in civil suits. Bacon, Max. Reg. 7; Broom, Max. 324.

Executio est executio juris secundum judicium. An execution is the execution of the law according to the judgment. 3 Inst. 212.

Executio est finis et fructus legis. An execution is the end and the fruit of law. Co. Litt. 289 b.

Executio legis non habet injuriam. An execution cannot work an injury. Co. Litt. 289 b.

Expedit reipublicæ ne sua re quis male utatur. It is for the interest of the state that a man should not use his own property improperly. Inst. 1. 8. 2; Broom, Max. 365-6; 3 Allen (Mass.) 329. This maxim belongs to the law of all countries: 1 Phill. Int. L. 553.

Expedit reipublicæ ut sit finis litium. It is to the advantage of the state that there should be an end of litigation. Co. Litt. 303 b; 5 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 568. See interest reipublicae, etc.

Experientia per varios actus legem facit. Experience by various acts makes laws. Co. Litt. 60; Branch, Princ.

Expositio, quae ex visceribus causae nascitur, est aptissima et fortissima in lege. That exposition which springs from the vitals of a cause is the fittest and most powerful in law. 10 Co. 24.

Expressa nocent, non expressa non nocent. Things expressed may be prejudicial; things not expressed are not. Calvinus, Lex; Dig. 50. 17. 195.

Expressa non prosunt quæ non expressa proderunt. Thing expressed may be prejudicial which when not expressed will profit. 4 Co. 73.

Expressio eorum quæ tacite insunt nihil operatur. The expression of those things which are tacitly implied operates nothing. Broom, Max. 669, 753; 2 Pars. Contr. 28; 4 Co. 73; 5 id. 11; Andr. Steph. PI. 366; Hob. 170; 3 Atk. 138; 11 M. & W. 569; 7 Exch. 28.

Expressio unius est exclusio alterius. The expression of one thing is the exclusion of another. Co. Litt. 210; Broom, Max. 607, 651; 3 Bingh. N. c. 85; 8 Scott N. R. 1013; 12 M. & W. 761; 16 id. 244; 6 Mass. 84; 11 Cush. (Mass.) 328; 98 Mass. 29; 117 id. 448; 3 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 110; 5 Watts (Pa.) 156; 36 Fed. 880; 104 U. S. 25, 26 L. Ed. 637. It is a rule of construction; 222 U. S. 513, 32 Sup. Ct. 117, 56 L. Ed. 291.

Expressum facit cessare tacitum. That which is expressed puts an end to (renders ineffective) that which is implied. Broom, Max. 607, 651; 5 Bingh. N. c. 185; 6 B. & C. 609; 2 C. & M. 459; 2 E. & B. 856; 7 Mass. 106; 9 Allen (Mass.) 306; 24 Me. 374; 7 Watts (Pa.) 361; 1 Doug. (Mich.) 330; 36 Fed. 880.

Exterus non habet terras. An alien holds no lands. Trayner, Max. 203.

Extincto subjecto, tallitur adjunctum. When the substance is gone, the adjuncts disappear. 16 Johns. (N. Y.) 438, 492.

Extra legem positus est civiliter mortuus. One out of the pale of the law (an outlaw) is civilly dead. Co. Litt. 130. A bankrupt is, as it were, civilly dead. 101 U. S. 406, 25 L. Ed. 866.

Extra territorium jus dicenti non paretur impune. One who exercises jurisdiction out of his territory cannot be obeyed with impunity. 10 Co. 77; Dig. 2. 1. 20; Story, Confl. Laws § 639; Broom, Max. 100, 101.

Extremis probatis præsumuntur media. Extremes being proved intermediate things are presumed. Trayner, Max. 207.

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Facta sunt potentiora verbis. Facts are more powerful than words.

Facts cannot lie. 18 How. St. Tr. 1187; 17 id. 1430; but see Best, Ev. 587.

Factum a judice quod ad ejus officium non spectat, non ratum est. An act of a judge which does not pertain to his office is of no force. 10 Co. 76; Dig. 60. 17. 170; Broom, Max. 93 n.

Factum cuique suum, non adversario, nocere debet. A man’s actions should injure himself, not his adversary. Dig. 50. 17. 155.

Factum infectum fieri nequit. What is done cannot be undone. 1 Kames, Eq. 96, 259.

Factum negantis nulla probatio. No proof is incumbent on him who denies a fact.

Factum non dicitur quod non perseverat. That is not said to be done which does not last. 5 Go. 96; Shep. Touch., Preston ed. 391.

Factum unius alteri nocere non debet. The deed of one should not hurt another. Co. Litt. 152.

Facultas probationum non est angustanda. The right of offering proof is not to be narrowed. 4 Inst. 279.

Falsa demonstratio non nocet. A false description does not vitiate. 6 Term 676. See 2 Story 291; 1 Greenl. Ev. § 301; Broom, Max. 659 et seq.; 2 Pars. Contr. 68, n.; 4 C. B. 328; 14 id. 122; 3 Gray (Mass.) 78, 9 Allen (Mass.) 113; 16 Ohio 64.

Falsa demonstratione legatum non perimi. A legacy is not destroyed by an incorrect description. Broom, Max. 645; 3 Bradf. (N. Y.) 144, 149. See Demonstration.

Falsa orthographia sive falsa grammatica non vitiat concessionem. False spelling or false grammar does not vitiate a grant. Bart. Max. 164; 9 Co. 48; Shep. Touch. 65.

Falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus. False in one thing false in everything. 7 Wheat. (U. S.) 338, 5 L. Ed. 454; 97 Mass. 406; 3 Wis. 645; 47 N. C. 257.

Fama, fides, et oculus non patiuntur ludum. Fame, plighted faith, and eyesight do not endure deceit. 3 Bulstr. 226.

Fatetur facinus qui judicium fugit. He who flees judgment confesses his guilt. 3 Inst. 14; 5 Co. 109 b. But see Best, Pres. § 248. See Flight.

Fatuus præsumitur qui in proprio nomine errat. A man is presumed to be simple who makes a mistake in bis own name. Code 6. 24. 14; 6 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 148, 161.

Favorabilia in lege sunt flscus, dos, vita, libertas. The treasury, dower, life, and liberty are things favored in law. Jenk. Cent. 94.

Favorabiliores rei potius quam actores habentur. Defendants are rather to be favored than plaintiffs. Dig. 50. 17. 125. See 8 Wheat. (U. S.) 195, 196, 5 L. Ed. 589; Broom, Max. 715.

Favorabilioros sunt executiones aliis processibus quibuscunque. Executions are preferred to all other processes whatever. Co. Litt. 289 b.

Favores ampliandi sunt; odia restringenda. Favorable inclinations are to be enlarged; animosities restrained. Jenk. Cent 186.

Felonia, ex vi termini, significat quodlibet capitale crimen felleo animo perpetratum. Felony, by force of the term, signifies some capital crime perpetrated with a malignant mind. Co. Litt. 391.

Felonia implicatur in quolibet proditione. Felony is implied in every treason. 3 Inst. 15.

Feodum est quod quis tenet ex quacunque causa, sive sit tenementum sive redditus. A fee is that which any one holds from whatever cause, whether tenement or rent. Co. Litt. 1.

Festinatio justitiæ est noverca infortunii. The hurrying of justice is the stepmother ot misfortune. Hob. 97.

Fiat justitia ruat cælum. Let Justice be done, though the heaven should fall. Branch, Princ. 161.

Fiat prout fieri consuevit, nil temere novandum. Let it be done as formerly, let no innovation be made rashly. Jenk. Cent. 116; Branch, Princ.

Fictio cedit veritati, fictio juris non est ubi veritas. Fiction yields to truth; where the truth appears, there can be no fiction of law. 11 Co. 51.

Fictio est contra veritatem, sed pro veritate habetur. Fiction is against the truth, but it is to he esteemed truth.

Fictio juris non est ubi veritas. Where truth is, fiction of law does not exist.

Fictio legis inique operatur alicui damnum vel injuriam. Fiction of law is wrongful if it works loss or injury to any one. 2 Co. 35; 3 id. 36; Glib. 223; Broom, Max. 129.

Fictio legis neminem lædit. A fiction of law injures no one. 2 Rolle 502; 3 Bla. Com. 43; 17 Johns. (N. Y.) 348.

Fidea servanda. Good faith must be observed. 1 Metc. (Mass.) 551; 3 Barb. (N. Y.) 323; 23 id. 521.

Fides servanda est; simplicitas juris gentium prævaleat. Good faith is to be preserved; the simplicity of the law of nations should prevail. Story, Bills § 15.

Fieri non debet, sed factum, valet. It ought not to be done, but done it is valid. 5 Co. 39; 1 Str. 526; 19 Johns. (N. Y.) 84, 92; 12 id. 11, 376.

Filiatio non potest probari. Filiation cannot be proved; that is, the husband is presumed to be the father of a child born during coverture. See Access; Co. Litt. 126 a. But see 7 & 8 Vict. c. 101.

Filius est nomen naturæ, sed hæres nomen juris. Son is a name of nature, but heir a name of law. 1 Sid. 193; 1 Pow. Dev. 311.

Filius in utero matris est pars viscerum matris. A son in the mother’s womb is part of the mother’s vitals. 7 Co. 8.

Finis finem litibus imponit. A fine puts an end to litigation. 3 Inst. 78.

Finis rei attendendus est. The end of a thing is to be attended to. 3 Inst. 51.

Finis unius diei est principium alterius. The end of one day is the beginning of another. 2 Bulstr. 306.

Firmior et potentior est operatio legis quam dispositio heminis. The operation of law is firmer and more powerful than the will of man. Co. Litt. 102. See Fortior et, etc.

Flumina et portus publica sunt, ideoque jus piscandi omnibus commune est. Rivers and ports are public; therefore the right of fishing there is common to all. Dav. 65; Branch, Princ.

Fæminæ ab omnibus officiis civilibus vel publicis remotæ sunt. Women are excluded from all civil and public charges or offices. Dig. 50. 17. 2; 1 Exch. 645; 6 M. & W. 216.

Fæminæ non sunt capaces de publicis officiis. Women are not admissible to public offices. Jenk. Cent. 237. But see 7 Mod. 263; Str. 1114; 2 Ld. Raym. 1014; 2 Term 395. See Women.

Forma dat esse. Form gives being. Lord Henley, Ch., 2 Eden 199.

Forma legalis forma essentialis. Legal form is essential form. 10 Co. 100; 9 C. B. 493; 2 Hopk. (N. Y.) 319.

Forma non observata infertur adnullatio actus. When form is not observed, a nullity of the act is inferred. 12 Co. 7.

Forstellarius est pauperum depressor, et totius communitatis et patriæ publicus inimicus. A forestaller is an oppressor of the poor, and a public enemy to the whole community and the country. 3 Inst 196. See Forestall.

Fortior est custodis legis quam hominis. The custody of the law is stronger than that of man. 2 Rolle 325.

Fortior et potentior est dispositio legis quam hominis. The disposition of the law is stronger and more powerful than that of man. Co. Litt. 234; Broom, Max. 697; 10 Q. B. 944; 18 id. 87; 10 C. B. 561; 3 H. L. C. 507; 13 M. & W. 285, 306; 8 Johns. (N. Y.) 401.

Fractionem diei non recipit lex. The law does not regard a fraction of a day. Lofft 572. But see Day.

Frater fratri uterino non succedit in hæreditate paterna. A brother shall not succeed a uterine brother in the paternal inheritance. Fort. de Laud. Leg. Ang. by Amos, p. 15; 2 Sharsw. Bla. Com. This maxim is now superseded in England by 3 & 4 Wm. IV. c. 106, s. 9. Broom, Max. 530; 2 Bla. Com. 232.

Fraus est celare fraudem. It is fraud to conceal a fraud. 1 Vern. 240.

Fraus est odiosa et non præsumenda. Fraud is odious and not to be presumed. Bart. Max. 159; Cro. Car. 550.

Fraus et dolus nemini patrocinari debent. Fraud and deceit should excuse no man. Broom, Max. 97; 3 Co. 78.

Fraus et jus nunquam cohabitant. Fraud and justice never dwell together. Wing. Max. 680.

Fraus latet in generalibus. Fraud lies hid in general expressions.

Fraus meretur fraudem. Fraud deserves fraud. Plowd. 100; Branch. Princ.

Free ships make free goods. See Free Ships.

Freight is the mother of wages. 2 Show. 283; 3 Kent 196; 1 Hagg. 227; Smith. Merc. Law 548; 1 Hill. 17; 5 Johns. (N. Y.) 154; 12 id. 324; 52 Mo. 387.

Frequentia actus multum operatur. The frequency of an act effects much. 4 Co. 78; Wing. Max. 192.

Fructus augent hæreditatem. Fruits enhance an inheritance.

Fructus pendentes pars fundi videntur. Hanging fruits are part of the land. Dig. 6. 1. 44; 2 Bouv. Inst n. 1578. See Larceny.

Fructus perceptos villæ non esse constat. Gathered fruits are not a part of the farm. Dig. 19. 1. 17. 1; 2 Bouv. Inst n. 1578.

Frumenta quæ sata sunt solo cedere intelliguntur. Grain which is sown is understood to form a part of the soil. Inst 2. 1. 32.

Frustra agit qui judicium presequi nequit cum effectu. He in vain sues, who cannot prosecute his judgment with effect. Fleta, lib. 6, c. 37, § 9.

Frustra est potentia quæ nunquam venit in actum. The power which never comes to be exercised is vain. 2 Co. 51.

Frustra feruntur leges nisi subditis et obedientibus. Laws are made to no purpose unless for those who are subject and obedient. 7 Co. 13.

Frustra fit per plura, quod fieri potest per pauciore. That is done vainly by many things, which might be accomplished by fewer. Jenk. Cent. 68; Wing. Max. 177.

Frustra legis auxilium quærit qui in legem committit. Vainly does he who offends against the law seek the help of the law. 2 Hale, P. C. 386; Broom, Max. 279. 297.

Frustra petis quod max es restiturus. Vainly you seek what you will immediately have to restore. 15 Mass. 407.

Frustra petis quod statim alteri reddere cogeris. Vainly you seek that which you will immediately be compelled to give back to another. Jenk. Cent. 256; Broom, Max. 846.

Frustra probatur quod probatum non relevat. It is vain to prove that which if proved would not aid the matter in question. Broom, Max. 255; 13 Gray (Mass.) 511.

Furiosi nulla voluntas est. A madman has no will. Dig. 50. 17. 5; id. 1. 18. 13. 1; Broom, Max. 314.

Furiosus absentis loco est. A madman is considered as absent. Dig. 50. 17. 24. 1.

Furiosus nullum negotium contrahere (gerere) potest (quia non intelligit quod agit). A lunatic cannot make a contract. Dig. 50. 17. 5; 1 Story, Contr. § 78.

Furiosus solo furore punitur. A madman is punished by his madness alone. Co. Litt. 247; Broom, Max. 15; 4 Bla. Com. 24, 25.

Furiosus stipulari non potest nec aliquod negotium agere, qui non intelligit quid agit. An insane person who knows not what he does, cannot make a bargain, nor transact any business. 4 Co. 126.

Furor contrahi matrimonium, non sinit, quia consensu opus est. Insanity prevents marriage from being contracted, because consent is needed. Dig. 23. 2. 16. 2; 1 V. & B. 140; 1 Bla. Com. 439; 4 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 313, 315.

Furtum non est ubi initium habet detentionis per dominium rei. It is not theft where the commencement of the detention arises through the owner of the thing. 3 Inst. 107.

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Gcnerale dictum generaliter est interpretandum. A general expression is to be construed generally. 8 Co. 116; 1 Eden 96; Bart. Max. 162.

Generale nihil certi implicat. A general expression implies nothing certain. 2 Co. 34; Wing. Max. 164.

Generale tantum valet in generalibus, quantum singulare in singulis. What is general prevails (or is worth as much) among things general, as what is particular among things particular. 11 Co. 59.

Generalia præcedunt, specialia sequuntur. Things general precede, things special follow. Reg. Brev.; Branch, Princ.

Generalia specialibus non derogant. Things general do not derogate from things special. Jenk. Cent 120.

Generalia sunt præponenda singularibus. General things are to be put before particular things.

Generalia verba sunt generaliter intelligenda. General words are understood in a general sense. 3 Inst 76; Broom, Max. 647.

Generalibus specialia derogant. Things special lessen the effect of things general. Halkers. Max. 51.

Generalis clausula non porrigitur ad ea quæ antea specialiter sunt comprehensa. A general clause does not extend to those things which are previously provided for specially. 8 Co. 154.

Generalis regula generaliter est intelligenda. A general rule is to be understood generally. 6 Co. 65.

Glossa viperina est quæ corrodit viscera textus. That is a poisonous gloss which eats out the vitals of the text. 10 Co. 70; 2 Bulst. 79.

Grammatica falsa non vitiat chartam. False grammar does not vitiate a deed. 9 Co. 48.

Gravitis est divinam quam temporalem Iædere majestatem. It is more serious to hurt divine than temporal majesty. 11 Co. 29.

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Habemus optimum testem, confitentem reum. We consider as the best witness a confessing defendant. Fos. Cr. Law 243. See 2 Hagg. 315; 1 Phill. Ev. 397.

Hæredem Deus facit, non homo. God, and not man, makes the heir. Bract. 62 b; Co. Litt. 7 b.

Hærediputæ suo propinquo vel extraneo periculosa sane custodia nullus committatur. To the next heir, whether a relation or a stranger, certainly a dangerous guardian, let no one be committed. Co Litt 88 b.

Hæreditas est successio in universum jus quod defunctus habuerat. Inheritance is the succession to every right which was possessed by the late possessor. Co. Litt. 237.

Hæreditas nihil aliud est quam successio in universum jus, quod defunctus habuerat. The right of inheritance is nothing else than the faculty of succeeding to all the rights of the deceased. Dig. 50. 17. 62.

Hæreditas nunquam ascendit. The inheritance never ascends. Glanville, 1. 7, c. I; Broom, Max. 527; 2 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 212, n.; 3 Greenl. Cr. R. P. 331; 1 Steph. Com. 378. Abrogated by stat. 3 & 4 Will. IV. c. 106, § 6.

Hæredum appellatione veniunt hæredes hæredum in infinitum. By the title of heirs, come the heirs of heirs to infinity. Co. Litt. 9.

Hæres est alter ipse, et filius est pars patris. An heir is another self, and a son is a part of the father.

Hæres est aut jure proprietatis aut jure representationis. An heir is either by right of property or right of representation. 3 Co. 40.

Hæres est eadem persona cum antecessore. The heir is the same person with the ancestor. Co. Litt. 22.

Hæres est nomen collectivum. Heir is a collective name.

Hæres est nomen juris, filius est nomen naturæ. Heir is a term of law; son, one of nature.

Hæres est pars antecessoris. The heir is a part of the ancestor. Co. Litt. 22 b; 3 Hill (N. Y.) 165, 167.

Hæres hæredis mei est meus hæres. The heir of my heir is my heir. Wharton, Law Diet.

Hæres legitimus est quem nuptiæ demonstrant. He is the lawful heir whom the marriage indicates. Mirror of Just. 70; Fleta, 1. 6, c. 1; Dig. 2. 4. 5; Co. Litt. 7 b; Broom, Max. 515. (As to the application of the principle when the marriage is subsequent to the birth of the child, see 2 CI. & F. 571; 6 Bingh. N. C. 385; 5 Wheat. (U. S.) 226, 262, n., 5 L. Ed. 70.)

Hæres minor una et viginti annis non respondebit, nisi in casu dotis. An heir under twenty-one years of age is not answerable, except in the matter of dower. F. Moore 348.

Hard cases are the quicksands of the law. 77 Fed. 705.

Hard cases make bad law.

He who comes into a court of equity must come with clean hands.

He who has committed iniquity shall not have equity. Francis, 2d Max.

He who is silent when conscience requires him to speak shall be debarred from speaking when conscience requires him to be silent.

He who seeks equity must do equity. 67 III. App. 440. See Equity.

He who will have equity done to him must do equity to the same person. 4 Bouv. Inst. 3723.

Heirs at law shall not be disinherited by conjecture, but only by express words or necessary implication. Schoul. Wills § 479.

Hoc servabitur quod initio comvenit. That shall be preserved which is useful in the beginning. Dig. 50. 17. 23; Bract. 73 b.

Home ne sera puny pur suer dea briefes en court le roy, soit il a droit ou a tort. A man shall not be punished for suing out writs in the king’s court, whether he be right or wrong. 2 Inst. 228; but see Malicious Prosecution.

Hominum causa jus constitutum est. Law is established tor the benefit of man.

Homo potest esse habilis et inhabilis diversis temporibus. A man may be capable and incapable at divers times. 5 Co. 98.

Homo vocabulum est naturæ; persona juris civilis. Man (homo) is a term of nature; person (persona), of civil law. Calvinus, Lex.

Hora non est multum de substantia negotii, licet in appello de ea aliquando fiat mentio. The hour is not of much consequence as to the substance of business, although in appeal it is sometimes mentioned. 1 Bulstr. 82.

Hostes sunt qui nobis vel quibus nos bellum decernimus; cæteri proditores vel prædones sunt. Enemies are those upon whom we declare war, or who declare it against us; all others are traitors or pirates. 7 Co. 24; Dig. 50. 16. 118; 1 Sharsw. Bla Com. 257.

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Id certum est quod certum reddi potest. That is certain which may be rendered certain. Co. Litt 96 a; 2 Bla. Com. 143; 4 Kent 462; 24 Pick. (Mass) 178; 11 Cush. (Mass.) 380; 90 Mass. 548; 99 id. 230; Broom, Max. 524 et seq.; 38 S. W. (Tenn.) 588; 67 III. App. 381.

Id perfectum est quod ex omnibus suis partibus constat. That is perfect which is complete in all its parts. 9 Co. 9.

Id possumus quod de jure possumus. We are able to do that which we can do lawfully. Lane 116.

Id quod est magis remotum non trahit ad se quod est magis junctum, sed e contrario in omni casu. That which is more remote does not draw to itself that which is nearer, but the contrary in every case. Co. Litt. 164.

Id quod nostrum est sine facto nostra ad alium transferri non potest. What belongs to us cannot be transferred to another without our consent Dig. 50. 17. 11.

Id solum nostrum quod debitis deductis nostrum est. That only is ours which remains to us after deduction of debts. Trayner, Max. 227.

Id tantum possumus quod de jure possumus. We can do that only which we can lawfully do. Trayner, Max. 237.

Idem agens et patiens esse non potest. To be at once the person acting and the person acted upon is impossible. Jenk. Cent. 40.

Idem est facere et non prohibere cum possis. It is the same thing to do a thing as not to prohibit it when in your power. 3 Inst. 158.

Idem est nihil dicere et insufficienter dicere. It is the same thing to say nothing and not to say enough. 2 Inst. 178.

Idem est non probari et non esse; non deficit jus sed probatio. What is not proved and what does not exist, are the same; it is not a defect of the law, but of proof.

Idem est scire aut scire debere aut potuisse. To be bound to know or to be able to know is the same as to know.

Idem non esse et non apparere. It is the same thing not to exist and not to appear. Broom, Max. 165; Jenk. Cent. 207.

Idem semper antecedenti proximo refertur. Idem always relates to the next antecedent. Co. Litt. 385; 7 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 248.

Identitas vera colligitur ex multitudine signorum. True identity is collected from a number of signs. Bacon, Max. Reg. 29.

Ignorantia eorum quæ quis scire tenetur non excusat. Ignorance of those things which every one is bound to know excuses not. Hale, P. C. 42. See Tindal, C. J., 10 CI. & F. 210 ; Broom, Max. 267; 4 Bla. Com. 27.

Ignorantia excusatur, non juris sed facti. Ignorance of fact may excuse, but not ignorance of law. See Ignorance.

Ignorantia facti excusat, ignorantia juris non excusat. Ignorance of fact excuses, ignorance of law does not excuse. 1 Co. 177; Broom, Max. 253, 263; Bart. Max. 100; 1 Fonb. Eq. 119, n. See Ignorance.

Ignorantia judicis est calamitas innocentis. The ignorance of the judge is the misfortune of the innocent. 2 Inst. 591.

Ignorantia juris non excusat. Ignorance of the law is no excuse. 8 Wend. (Pa.) 267; 18 id. 586; 6 Paige (N. Y.) 189; 1 Edw. Ch. (N. Y.) 467; 7 Watts (Pa.) 374; L. R. 2 H. L. 170. See Ignorance.

Ignorantia juris quod quisque scire tenetur, neminem excusat. Ignorance of law, which every one is bound to know, excuses no one. 2 Co. 3 b; 1 Plowd. 343; 9 CI. & F. 324; Broom, Max. 253; 7 C. & P. 456; 2 Kent 491. See Ignorance.

Ignorantia juris sui non præjudicat juri. Ignorance of one’s right does not prejudice the right. Lofft 552. See Ignorance.

Ignorantia legis neminem excusat. Ignorance of law excuses no one. See Ignorance; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. §111; 7 Watts (Pa.) 374.

Ignorantia præsumitur ubi scientia non probatur. Ignorance is presumed where knowledge is not proved. Sext. V. de Regulis Juris 48. It Is said that the English cases have veered around to this civil law doctrine. Beven, Empl. Liab. 25.

Ignorare legis est lata culpa. To be ignorant of the law is gross neglect. Bartolus on Cod. 1. 14. See Culpa.

Ignoratis terminis, ignoratur et ars. Terms being unknown, the art also is unknown. Co. Litt. 2.

Illud quod alias licitum non est, necessitas facit licitum, et necessitas inducit privilegium qiiod jure privatur. That which is not otherwise lawful necessity makes lawful, and necessity makes a privilege which supersedes the law. 10 Co. 61.

Illud quod alteri unitur extinguitur, neque amplius per se vacare licet. That which is united to another is extinguished, nor can it be any more independent. Godolph. Rep. Can. 169.

Immobilia situm sequuntur. Immovables follow (the law of) their locality. 2 Kent 67.

Imperitia culpæ annumeratur. Want of skill is considered a fault (i. e. negligence, for which one who professes skill is responsible). Dig. 50. 17. 132; 2 Kent 588.

Impersonalitas non concludit nec ligat. Impersonality neither concludes nor binds. Co. Litt. 352.

Impossibilium nulla obligatio est. There is no obligation to perform impossible things. Dig. 50. 18. 185: 1 Poth. Obi. pt. 1, c. 1, s. 4, § 3; 2 Story, Eq. Jur. 763; Broom, Max. 249.

Impotentia excusat legem. Impossibility is an excuse in the law. Broom, Max. 243, 251.

Impunitas continuum affectum tribuit delinquenti. Impunity offers a continual bait to a delinquent. 4 Co. 45.

Impunitas semper ad deteriora invitat. Impunity always invites to greater crimes. 5 Co. 109.

In æquali jure melior est conditio possidentis. When the parties have equal rights, the condition of the possessor is the better. Mitf. Eq. PI. 215; Jer. Eq. Jur. 285; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 170; Dig. 50. 17. 128; Broom, Max. 713; Plowd. 295.

In alta proditione nullus potest esse accessorius sed principalis solummodo. In high treason, no one can be an accessory; all are principals. 3 Inst. 138; see 4 Cra. (U. S.) 75, 2 L. Ed. 554; 4 Cra. (U. S.) 146, 2 L. Ed. 576. See Accessory.

In alternativis electio est debitoris. In alternatives, the debtor has the election.

In ambigua voce legis ea potius accipienda est significatio, quæ vitio caret; præsertim cum etiam, voluntas legis ex hoc colligi possit. In an ambiguous law that interpretation shall be preferred which is most consonant to equity, especially where it is in conformity with the general design of the legislature. Dig. 1. 3, 19 ; Broom, Max. 576; Bacon Max. Reg. 3; 2 Inst. 173.

In ambiguis orationibus maxime sententia spectanda est ejus qui eas protulisset. When there are ambiguous expressions, the intention of him who uses them is especially to be regarded. (This maxim of Roman law was confined to wills.) Dig. 50. 17. 96; Broom, Max. 567.

In ambiguo sermone non utrumque dicimus sed id duntaxat quod volumus. When the language we use is ambiguous, we do not use it in a double sense, but in the sense in which we mean it. Dig. 34. 5. 3; 2 De G. M. & G. 313.

In Anglia non est interregnum. There can be no interregnum in England. Jenk. Cent. 205.

In atrocioribus delictis punitur affectus licet non sequatur effectus. In more atrocious crimes, the intent is punished though the effect does not follow. 2 Rolle 89. But see Attempt.

In casu extremæ necessitatis omnia sunt communia. In cases of extreme necessity, everything is in common. 1 Hale, PI. Cr. 54; Broom, Max. 2 n.

In civilibus ministerium excusat, in criminalibus non item. In civil matters agency (or service) excuses, but not so in criminal matters. Lofft 228; Trayner, Max. 243.

In commodato hæc pactio, ne dolus præstetur, rata non est. If in a contract for a loan there is inserted a clause that fraud should not be accounted of, such clause is void. Dig. 13. 7. 17.

In conjunctivis oportet utramque partem esse veram. In conjunctives each part must be true. Wing. Max. 13.

In consimili casu, consimile debet esse remedium. In similar cases, the remedy should be similar. Hardr. 65.

In consuetudinibus non diuturnitas temporis sed soliditas rationis est consideranda. In customs, not the length of time but the strength of the reason should he considered, Co. Litt. 141.

In contractibus, benigna; in testamentis, benignior; in restitutionibus, benignissima interpretatio facienda est. In contracts, the interpretation or construction should be liberal; in wills, more liberal; in restitutions, most liberal. Co. Litt. 112 a.

In contractibus tacite insunt quæ sunt moris et consuetudinis. In contracts, those things which are of custom and usage are tacitly implied. Broom. Max. 842; 3 Bingh. N. c. 814, 818; Story, Bills § 143; 3 Kent 260.

In contrahenda venditione, ambiguum pactum, contra venditorem interpretandum est. In negotiating a sale, an ambiguous agreement is to be interpreted against the seller. Dig. 50. 17. 172; 18. 1. 21.

In conventionibus contrahentium voluntatem potius quam verba spectari placuit. In agreements, the rule is to regard the intention of the contracting parties rather than their words. Dig. 50. 16. 219; 2 Kent 555; Broom, Max. 551; 17 Johns. (N. Y.) 150.

In criminalibus, probationes debent esse luce clariores. In criminal cases, the proofs ought to be clearer than the light. 3 Inst. 210.

In criminalibus sufficit generalis malitia intentionis cum facto paris gradus. In criminal cases, a general malice of intention is sufficient, with an act of corresponding degree. Bacon, Max. Reg. 15; Broom, Max. 323.

In criminalibus voluntas reputabitur pro facto. In criminal acts, the will will be taken for the deed. 3 Inst 106.

In disjunctivis sufficit alteram partem esse veram. In disjunctives, it is sufficient if either part be true. Wing. Max. 13; Broom, Max. 592; Co. Litt. 225 a; 10 Co. 50; Dig. 50. 17. 110.

In dubiis benigniora præferenda sunt. In doubtful matters, the more favorable are to be preferred. Dig. 50. 17. 56; 2 Kent 557.

In dubiis magis dignum est accipiendum. In doubtful cases, the more worthy is to be taken. Branch, Princ.

In dubiis non præsumitur pro testamento. In doubtful cases, there is no presumption in favor of the will. Cro. Car. 51.

In dubio hæc legis constructio quam verba ostendunt. In a doubtful case, that is the construction of the law which the words indicate.

In dubio pars mitior est sequenda. In doubt, the gentler course is to be followed.

In dubio, pro lege fori. In a doubtful case, the law of the forum is to be preferred. “A false maxim.” Meili, Int. L. 151.

In dubio sequendum quod tutius est. In doubt, the safer course is to be adopted.

In eo quod plus sit semper inest et minus. The less is always included in the greater. Dig. 50. 17. 110.

In expositione instrumentorum, mala grammatica, quod fieri potest, vitanda est. In the construction of instruments, bad grammar is to be avoided as much as possible. 5 Co. 39; 2 Pars. Contr. 26.

In facto quod se habet ad bonum et malum magis de bona quam de malo lex intendit. In a deed which may be considered good or bad, the law looks more to the good than to the bad. Co. Litt. 78 b.

In favorabilibus magis attenditur quod prodest quam quod nocet. In things favored, what does good is more regarded than what does harm. Bacon, Max. Reg. 12; Bart. Max. 151.

In favorem vitæ, libertatis, et innocentiæ omnia præsumuntur. In favor of life, liberty, and innocence, all things are to be presumed. Lofft 125.

In fictione juris semper æquitas existit. A legal fiction is always consistent with equity. 11 Co. 51; Broom, Max. 127, 130; 17 Johns. (N. Y.) 348; 3 Bla. Com. 43.

In fictione juris semper subsistit æguitas. In a legal fiction equity always exists. 2 Pick. (Mass.) 495, 627.

In generalibus versatur error. Error dwells in general expressions. 1 Cush. (Mass.) 292.

In genere quicunque aliquid dicit, sive actor sive reus, necesse est ut probat. In general, whoever alleges anything, whether plaintiff or defendant, must prove it. Best, Ev. § 252.

In hæredes non solent transire actiones quæ pænales ex maleficio sunt. Penal actions arising from anything of a criminal nature do not pass to heirs. 2 Inst. 442.

In his enim quæ sunt favorabilia animæ, quamvis sunt damnosa rebus, fiat aliquando extentio statuti. In things that are favorable to the spirit, though injurious to property, an extension of the statute should sometimes be made. 10 Co. 101.

In his quæ de jure communi omnibus conceduntur, consuetudo alicujus patriæ vel loci non est alleganda. In those things which by common right are conceded to all, the custom of a particular country or place is not to be alleged. 11 Co. 85.

In judiciis minori ætati succurritur. In judicial proceedings infancy is favored. Jenk. Cent. 46.

In judicio non creditur nisi juratis. In law, no one is credited unless he is sworn. Cro. Car. 64.

In jure non remota causa, sed proxima, spectatur. In law, the proximate and not the remote cause is to be looked to. Bacon, Max. Reg. 1; Broom, Max. 216, 228, 853, n.; 12 Mass. 234; 12 Mete. (Mass.) 387. See 3 Pars. Con. 455; Causa Proxima Non Remota Spectatur.

In majore summa continetur minor. In the greater sum is contained the less. 5 Co. 115.

In maleficiis voluntas spectatur non exitus. In offences, the intention is regarded, not the event. Dig. 48. 8. 14; Bacon, Max. Reg. 7; Broom, Max. 324.

In maleficio ratihabitio mandato comparatur. In a tort, ratification is equivalent to authority. Dig. 50. 17. 152. 2.

In maxima potentia minima licentia. In the greatest power there is the least liberty. Hob. 159.

In mercibus illicitis non sit commercium. There should be no commerce in illicit goods. 3 Kent 262, n.

In novo casu novum remedium apponendum est. In a new state of facts a new legal remedy must be applied. 2 Inst. 3.

In obscuris inspici solere quod verisimilius est, aut quod plerumque fieri solet. Where there is obscurity, we usually regard what is probable or what is generally done. Dig. 50. 17. 114.

In obscuris quod minimum est sequimur. In obscure cases, we follow that which is least so. Dig. 60. 17. 9.

In odium, spoliatoris omnia præsumuntur. All things are presumed against a wrongdoer. Broom, Max. 939; 1 Vern. 19; 1 P. Wms. 731; 1 Ch. Cas. 292.

In omni actione ubi duæ concurrunt districtiones, videlicet in rem et in personam, illa districtio tenenda est quæ magis timetur et magis ligat. In every action where two distresses concur, that is in rem and in personam, that is to be chosen which is most dreaded, and which binds most firmly. Bract. 372 ; Fleta, 1. 5, c. 14, § 28.

In omni re nascitur res quæ ipsam rem exterminat. In every thing, the thing is born which destroys the thing itself. 2 Inst. 15.

In omnibus contractibus, sive nominatis sive innominatis, permutatio continetur. In every contract, whether nominate or innominate, there is implied an exchange, i. e. a consideration.

In ommibus obligationibus, in quibus dies non ponitur, præsenti die debetur. In all obligations, when no time is fixed for the performance, the thing is due immediately. Dig. 60. 17. 14.

In omnibus pænalibus judiciis, et ætati et imprudentiæ succurritur. In all trials for penal offences, allowance is made for youth and lack of discretion. Dig. 50. 17. 108; Broom, Max. 314.

In omnibus quidem maxime tamen in jure æquitas spectanda sit. In all affairs indeed, but principally in those which concern the administration of justice, equity should be regarded. Dig. 50. 17. 90.

In pari causa possessor potior haberi debet. When two parties have equal rights, the advantage is always in favor of the possessor. Dig. 50. 17. 128; Broom, Max. 714.

In pari causa potior est conditio possidentis. When two parties have equal rights, the advantage is in favor of the one having possession.

In pari delicto melior est conditio possidentis. When the parties are equally in the wrong, the condition of the possessor is better. 11 Wheat. (U. S.) 258, 6 L. Ed. 468; 3 Cra. (U. S.) 244, 2 L. Ed. 427; Cowp. 341; Broom, Max. 325; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3724.

In pari delicto potior est conditio defendentis (et possidentis). Where both parties are equally in fault, the condition of the defendant is preferable. L. R. 7 Ch. 473; 11 Mass. 376; 101 Mass. 150; Broom, Max. 290, 721; 38 Fed. 191.

In pænalibus causis benignius interpretandum est. In penal cases, the more favorable interpretation is to be made. Dig. 50. 17. 155. 2; Plowd. 86 b; 2 Hale, P. C. 355.

In præparatoriis ad judicium favetur actori. In things preparatory before trial, the plaintiff is favored. 2 Inst. 57.

In præsentia majoris potestatis, minor potestas cessat. In the presence of the superior power, the minor power ceases. Jenk. Cent. 214 ; Hardw. 28; 13 How. (U. S.) 142, 14 L. Ed. 75; 13 Q. B. 740. See Broom, Max. 111, 112.

In pretio emptionis et venditionis naturaliter licet eontrahentibus se circumvenire. In the price of buying and selling, it is naturally allowed to the contracting parties to overreach each other. 1 Story, Contr. 606.

In propria causa nemo judex. No one can be judge in his own cause. 12 Co. 13.

In quo quis delinquit, in eo de jure est puniendus. In whatever thing one offends, in that he is rightfully to be punished. Co. Litt. 233 b.

In re communi neminem dominorum jure facere quicquam, invito altero, posse. One co-proprietor can exercise no authority over the common property against the will of the other. Dig. 10. 3. 28.

In re dubia benigniorem interpretationem sequi, non minus justius est, quam tutius. In a doubtful case, to follow the milder interpretation is not less the more just than it is the safer course. Dig. 50. 17. 192. 2; 28. 4. 3.

In re dubia magis infitiatio quam affirmatio intelligenda. In a doubtful matter, the negative is to be understood rather than the afilrmative. Godb. 37; Bart. Max. 127.

In re lupanari, testes lupanares admittentur. In a matter concerning brothel, prostitutes are admitted as witnesses. 6 Barb. (N. Y.) 320, 324.

In re pari, potiorem causam esse prohibentis constat. Where a thing is owned in common, it is agreed that the cause of him prohibiting (its use) is the stronger. Dig. 10. 3. 28; 3 Kent 45; Pothier, Traité du Con. de Soc. n. 90; 16 Johns. (N. Y.) 438, 491.

In re propria iniquum admodum est alicui licentiam tribuere sententiæ. It Is extremely unjust that any one should be judge in his own cause.

In rebus manifestis errat qui auctoritates legum allegat; quia perspicua vera non sunt probanda. He errs who alleges the authorities of law in things manifest; because obvious truths need not be proved. 5 Co. 67.

In republica maxime conservanda sunt jura belli. In the state, the laws of war are to be especially observed. 2 Inst. 58; 8 Allen (Mass.) 484.

In restitutionem, non in pænam, hæres succedit. The heir succeeds to the restitution, not the penalty. 2 Inst. 198.

In restitutionibus benignissima interpretatio facienda est. The most favorable construction is to be made in restitutions. Co. Litt. 112.

In satisfactionibus non permittitur amplius fieri quam semel factum est. In payments, more must not be received than has been received once for all. 9 Co. 53.

In stipulationibus cum quæritur quid actum sit, verba contra stipulatorem interpretanda sunt. In contracts, when the question is what was agreed upon, the terms are to be interpreted against the party offering them. Dig. 41. 1. 38. 18. (Chancellor Kent remarks that the true principle appears to be “to give the contract the sense in which the person making the promise believes the other party to have accepted it, if he in fact did so understand and accept it.” 2 Kent 721.) 2 Day (Conn.) 281; 1 Duer, Ins. 159, 160; Broom, Max. 599.

In stipulationibus id tempus spectatur quo contrahimus. In agreements, reference is had to the time at which they were made. Dig. 50. 17. 144. 1.

In suo quisque negotio hebetior est quam in alieno. Every one is more dull in his own business than in that of another. Co. Litt. 377.

In testamentis plenius testatoris intentionem scrutamur. In testaments, we should seek diligently the will of the testator. (But, says Doddridge, C. J., “this is to be observed with these two limitations; 1st, his intent ought to be agreeable to the rules of the law; 2d, his intent ought to be collected out of the words of the will.” 3 Bulstr. 103.) Broom, Max. 555.

In testamentis plenius voluntates testantium interpretantur. In testaments, the will of the testator should be liberally construed. Dig. 50. 17. 12; Cujac. ad. loc. cited 3 Pothier, Pand. 46; Broom, Max. 568.

In toto et pars continetur. A part is included in the whole. Dig. 50. 17. 113.

In traditionibus scriptorum (chartarum) non quod dictum est, sed quod gestum (factum) est, inspicitur. In the delivery of writings (deeds), not what is said but what is done is to be considered. 9 Co. 137; Leake, Contr. 4.

In veram quantitatem fidejussor teneatur, nisi pro certa quantitate accessit. Let the surety be holden for the true quantity unless he agree for a certain quantity. 17 Mass. 597.

In verbis non verba sed res et ratio quærenda est. In words, not the words, but the thing and the meaning is to be inquired into. Jenk. Cent. 132.

In vocibus videndum non a quo sed ad quid sumatur. In discourses, it is to be considered not from what, but to what, it is advanced. Ellesmere, Postn. 62.

Incendium ære alieno non exuit debitorem. A fire does not release a debtor from his debt. Code 4. 2. 11.

Incerta pro nullis habentur. Things uncertain are held for nothing. Dav. 33.

Incerta quantitas vitiat actum. An uncertain quantity vitiates the act. 1 Rolle 465.

Incivile est, nisi tota lege prospecta, una aliqua particula ejus proposita, judicare vel respondere. It is improper, unless the whole law has been examined, to give judgment or advice upon a view of a single clause of it. Dig. 1. 3. 24. See Hob. 171 a.

Incivile est, nisi tota sententia inspecta, de aliqua parte judicare. It is improper to pass an opinion on any part of a passage without examining the whole. Hob. 171 a.

Inclusio unius est exclusio alterius. The Inclusion of one is the exclusion of another. 11 Co. 58; 8 Mont. 312.

Incolas domicilium facit. Residence creates domicil. 1 Johns. Cas. (N. Y.) 363, 366. See Domicil.

Incommodum non solvit argumentum. An inconvenience does not solve an argument.

Incorporalia bello non adquiruntur. Things incorporeal are not acquired by war. 6 Maule & S. 104.

Inde datæ leges ne fortior omnia posset. Laws were made lest the stronger should have unlimited power.

Indefinitum æquipollet universali. The undefined is equivalent to the whole. 1 Ventr. 368.

Indefinitum supplet locum universalis. The undefined supplies the place of the whole. 4 Co. 77.

Independenter se habet assecuratio a viaggio navis. The voyage insured is an independent or distinct thing from the voyage of the ship. 3 Kent 318, n.

Index animi sermo. Speech is the index of the mind. Broom, Max. 622.

Inesse potest donationi, modus, conditio sive causa: ut modus est; si conditio; quia causa. In a gift there may be manner, condition, and cause; as (ut), introduces a manner; if (si), a condition; because (quia), a cause. Dyer 138.

Infans non multum a furioso distat. An infant does not differ much from a lunatic. Bract. 1. 3, c. 2, § 3; Dig. 50. 17. 5. 40; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. §§ 223, 224, 242.

Infinitum in jure reprobatur. That which is infinite is reprehensible in law. 9 Co. 45.

Iniquissima pax est anteponenda justissimo bello. The most unjust peace is to be preferred to the justest war. 18 Wend. (N. Y.) 257, 305.

Iniquum est alios permittere, alios inhibere mercaturam. It is inequitable to permit some to trade and to prohibit others. 3 Inst. 181.

Iniquum est aliquem rei sui esse judicem. It is unjust for any one to be judge in his own cause. 12 Coke 13.

Iniquum, est ingenuis hominibus non esse liberam rerum suarum alienationem. It is against equity for freemen not to have the tree disposal of their own property. Co. Litt. 223.

Injuria fit ei cui convicium dictum est, vel de eo factum, carman famosum. An injury is done to him of whom a reproachful thing is said, or concerning whom an infamous song is made. 9 Co. 60; Bart. Max. 179.

Injuria non excusat injuriam. A wrong does not excuse a wrong. Broom, Max. 270, 387, 395; 11 Exch. 822; 15 Q. B. 276; 6 E. & B. 76; Branch, Princ.

Injuria non præsumitur. A wrong is not presumed. Co. Litt. 232.

Injuria propria non cadet beneficium facientis. No one shall profit by his own wrong.

Injuria servi dominum pertingit. The master is liable for injury done by his servant. Lofft 229.

Injustum est, nisi tota lege inspecta, de una aliqua ejus particula proposita judicare vel respondere. It is unjust to give judgment or advice concerning any particular clause of a law without having examined the whole law. 8 Co. 117 b.

Insanus est qui, abjecta ratione, omnia cum impetu et furore facit. He is insane who, reason being thrown away, does everything with violence and rage. 4 Co. 128.

Instans est finis unius temporis et principium alterius. An instant is the end of one time and the beginning of another. Co. Litt. 185.

Intentio cæca mala. A hidden intention is bad. 2 Bulstr. 179.

Intentio inservire debet legibus, non leges intentioni. Intentions ought to be subservient to the laws, not the laws to intentions. Co. Litt. 314.

Intentio mea imponit nomen operi meo. My intent gives a name to my act. Hob. 123.

Inter alios res gestas aliis non posse præjudicium facere sæpe constitutum est. It has been often settled that things which took place between other parties cannot prejudice. Code 7. 60. 1. 2.

Inter arma silent leges. In time of war the laws are silent. Cicero, pro Milone. It applies as between the state and its external enemies; and also in cases of civil disturbance where extrajudicial force may supersede the ordinary process of law. Salmond, Jurispr. 641.

Interdum venit ut exceptio queæ prima facie justa videtur, tamen inique noceat. It sometimes happens that a plea which seems prima facie just, nevertheless is injurious and unequal. Inst 4. 14; 4. 14; 1. 2.

Interest reipublicæ ne maleficia remaneant impunita. It concerns the commonwealth that crimes do not remain unpunished. Jenk. Cent. 30, 31.

Interest reipublicæ ne sua quis male utatur. It concerns the commonwealth that no one misuse his property. 6 Co. 36.

Interest reipublicæ quod homines conserventur. It concerns the commonwealth that men be preserved. 12 Co. 62.

Interest reipublicæ res judicatas non rescindi. It concerns the commonwealth that things adjudged be not rescinded. See Res Judicata.

Interest reipublicæ suprema hominum testamenta rata haberi. It concerns the commonwealth that men’s last wills be sustained. Co. Litt. 236.

Interest reipublicæ ut carceres sint in tuto. It concerns the commonwealth that prisons be secure. 2 Inst. 587.

Interest reipublicæ ut pax in regno conservetur, et quæcunque paci adversentur provide declinentur. It benefits the state to preserve peace in the kingdom, and prudently to decline whatever is adverse to it. 2 Inst, 158.

Interest reipublicæ ut quilibet re sua bene utatur. It concerns the commonwealth that every one use his property properly. 6 Co. 37.

Interest reipublicæ ut sit finis litium. It concerns the commonwealth that there be a limit to litigation. Broom, Max. 331, 343, 893 n.; Co. Litt. 303; 7 Mass. 432; 16 Gray (Mass.) 27; 88 Pa. 506.

Interpretare et concordare leges legibus est optimus interpretandi modus. To interpret and reconcile laws so that they harmonize is the best mode of construction. 8 Co. 169.

Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis valeat quam pereat. Such a construction is to be made that the subject may have an effect rather than none. Broom. Max. 543; Jenk. Cent. 198; 78 Pa. 219. See Construction; Interpretation.

Interpretatio talis in ambiguis semper fienda est, ut evitetur inconveniens et absurdum. In ambiguous things, such a construction should be made, that what is inconvenient and absurd may be avoided. 4 Inst. 328.

Interruptio multiplex non tollit præscriptionem semel obtentam. Repeated interruptions do not defeat a prescription once obtained. 2 Inst. 654.

Intestatus decedit, qui aut omnino testamentum non fecit aut non jure fecit, aut id quod fecerat ruptum irritumve factum est, aut nemo ex eo hæres exstitit. He dies intestate who either has made no will at all or has not made it legally, or whose will which he had made has been annulled or become ineffectual, or to whom there is no living heir. Inst. 3. 1. pr.; Dig. 38. 16. 1; 50. 16. 64.

Inutilis labor, et sine fructu, non est effectus legis. Useless labor and without fruit is not the effect of law. Co. Litt. 127; Wing. Max. 38.

Inveniens libellum famosum et non corrumpens punitur. He who finds a libel and does not destroy it, is punished. F. Moore 813.

Invito beneficium non datur. No one is obliged to accept a benefit against his consent. Dig. 50. 17. 69; Broom, Max. 699 n; Salmond. Jurispr. 642. (but if he does not dissent, he will, in many cases, be considered as assenting. See Assent.)

Ipsæ leges cupiunt ut jure regantur. The laws themselves desire that they should be governed by right. Co. Litt. 174 b, quoted from Cato; 2 Co. 25 b.

Ira furor brevis est. Anger is a short insanity. 4 Wend. (N. Y.) 336, 355.

Ita lex scripta est. The law is so written. 26 Barb. (N. Y.) 374, 380; 18 Pa. 306. See 22 Pick. (Mass.) 389.

Ita semper fiat relatio et valeat dispositio. Let the relation be so made that the disposition may stand. 6 Co. 76;

Iter est jus eundi, ambulandi hominis; non etiam jumentum agendi vel vehiculum. A way is the right of going or walking, and does not include the right of driving a beast of burden or a carriage. Co. Litt. 56 a; Inst. 2. 3. pr.; 1 Mack. Civ. Law 343, § 314.

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Judex æquitatem semper spectare debet. A Judge ought always to regard equity. Jenk. Cent. 45.

Judex ante oculos æquitatem semper habere debet. A judge ought always to have equity before his eyes. Jenk. Cent. 58.

Judex bonus nihil ex arbitrio suo faciat, nec propositione domesticæ voluntatis, sed juxta leges et jura pronunciet. A good judge should do nothing from his own arbitrary will, or from the dictates of his private wishes; but he should pronounce according to law and justice. 7 Co. 27 a.

Judex damnatur cum nocens absolvitur. The judge is condemned when the guilty are acquitted.

Judex debet judicare secundum allegata et probata. The Judge ought to decide according to the allegations and the proofs.

Judex est lex loquens. The judge is the speaking law. 7 Co. 4 a.

Judex habere debet duos sales, salem sapientiæ, ne sit insipidus, et salem conscientiæ, ne sit diabolus. A judge should have two salts: The salt of wisdom, lest he be foolish; and the salt of conscience, lest he be devilish. 3 Inst. 147; Bart. Max 189.

Judex non potest esse testis in propria causa. A judge cannot be a witness in his own cause. 4 Inst. 279. See Judge.

Judex non potest injuriam sibi datum punire. A judge cannot punish a wrong done to himself. 12 Co. 114.

Judex non reddit plus quam quod petens ipse requirit. The judge does not give more than the plaintiff demands. 2 Inst. 286, case 84.

Judicandum est legibus non exemplis. We are to judge by the laws, not by examples. 4 Co. 33 b; 4 Bla. Com. 405.

Judices non tenentur exprimere causam sententiæ suæ. Judges are not bound to explain the reason of their judgments. Jenk. Cent. 75.

Judici officium suum excedenti non paretur. To a judge who exceeds his office (or jurisdiction) no obedience is due. Jenk. Cent. 139.

Judici satis pæna est quod Deum habet ultorem. It is punishment enough for a judge that he is responsible to God. 1 Leon. 295.

Judicia in curia regis non adnihilentur, sed stent in robore suo quousque per errorem aut attinctam adnullentur. Judgments in the king’s court are not to be annihilated, but to remain in force until annulled by error or attaint. 2 Inst. 360.

Judicia in deliberationibus crebro maturescunt, in accelerato processu nunquam. Judgments frequently become matured by deliberation, never by hurried process. 3 Inst. 210.

Judicia posteriora sunt in lege fortiora. The later decisions are stronger in law. 8 Co. 97.

Judicia sunt tanquam juris dicta, et pro veritate accipiuntur. Judgments are, as it were, the dicta or sayings of the law, and are received as truth. 2 Inst. 537.

Judiciis posterioribus fides est adhibenda. Faith or credit is to be given to the later decisions. 13 Co. 14.

Judicis est in pronuntiando sequi regulam, exceptione non probata. The judge in his decision ought to follow the rule, when the exception is not proved.

Judicis est judicare secundum allegata et probata. A Judge ought to decide according to the allegations and proofs. Dyer 12 a; Halkers. Max. 73.

Judicis est jus dicere, non dare. It is the duty of a judge to declare the law, not to enact it. Lofft 42.

Judicis officium est opus diei in die suo perficere. It is the duty of a judge to finish the work of each day within that day. Dyer 12.

Judicis officium est ut res ita tempora rerum quærere; quæsito tempore tutus eris. It is the duty of a judge to inquire the times of things, as well as into things; by inquiring into the time you will be safe. Co. Litt. 171.

Judicium a non suo judice datum nullius est momenti. A judgment given by an improper judge is of no force. 10 Co. 76 b; 2 Q. B. 1014; 13 id. 143; 14 M. & W. 124; 11 CI. & F. 610; Broom, Max. 93.

Judicium est quasi juris dictum. Judgment is as it were a saying of the. law. Co. Litt. 168.

Judicium non debet esse illusorium, suum effectum habere debet. A judgment ought not to be illusory, it ought to have its proper effect. 2 Inst. 341.

Judicium redditur in invitum, in præsumptione legis. In presumption of law, a judgment is given against inclination. Co. Litt. 248 b, 314 b.

Judicium semper pro veritate accipitur. A. judgment is always taken for truth. 2 Inst. 380; 17 Mass. 237.

Juncta juvant. Things joined have effect. 11 East 220.

Jura ecclesiastica limitata sunt infra limites separates. Ecclesiastical laws are limited within separate bounds. 3 Bulstr. 53.

Jura eodem modo destituuntur quo constituuntur. Laws are abrogated or repealed by the same means by whicb they are made. Broom, Max. 878.

Jura naturæ sunt immutabilia. The laws of nature are unchangeable. Branch, Prlnc.; Oliver, Forms 56.

Jura publica anteferenda privatis. Public rights are to be preferred to private. Co. Litt. 130.

Jura publica ex privato promiscue decidi non detent. Public rights ought not to be decided promiscuously with private. Co. Litt. 181 6.

Jura regis specialia non conceduntur per generalia verba. The special rights of the king are not granted by general words. Jenb. Cent. 103.

Jura sanguinis nullo jure civili dirimi possunt. The right of blood and kindred cannot be destroyed by any civil law. Dig. 50. 17. 9; Bacon, Max. Reg. 11; Broom, Max. 533; 14 Allen (Mass.) 562.

Juramentum est indivisibile, et non est admittendum in parte verum et in parte falsum. An oath is indivisible; it is not to be held partly true and partly false. 4 Inst. 274.

Jurare est Deum in testum vocare, et est actus divini cultus. To swear is to call God to witness, and is an act of religion. 3 Inst. 165. See Bart. Max. 232; 1 Benth. Ev. 376, 371, note.

Juratores debent esse vicini, sufficientes et minus suspecti. Jurors ought to be neighbors, of sufficient estate, and free from suspicion. Jenk. Cent. 141.

Juratores sunt judices facti. Jurors are the judges of the facts. Jenk. Cent. 68.

Juratur creditur in judicio. He who makes oath is to be believed in judgment. 3 Inst. 79.

Jure naturæ æquum est neminem cum alterius detrimenta et injuria fieri locupletiorem. According to the laws of nature, it is just that no one should be enriched with detriment and injury to another (i. e. at another’s expense). Dig. 50. 17. 200.

Juri non est consonum, quod aliquis accessorius in curia regis convincatur antequam aliquis de facto fuerit attinatus. It is not consonant to justice that any accessory should be convicted in the king’s court before any one has been attainted of the tact. 2 Inst. 183.

Juris effectus in executione consistit. The effect of a law consists in the execution. Co. Litt. 289 &.

Juris ignorantia est, cum jus nostrum ignoramus. It is ignorance of the law when we do not know our own rights.

Juris præcepta sunt hæc, honeste vivere, alterum non lædere, suum cuique tribuere. These are the precepts of the law, to live honorably, to hurt nobody, to render to every one his due. Inst. 1. 1. 3; Sharsw. Bla. Com. Introd; 40.

Juris quidem ignorantiam cuique nocere, facti verum ignorantiam non nocere. Ignorance of fact prejudices no one, ignorance of law does. Dig. 22. 6. 9.

Jurisdictio est potestas de publico introducta, cum necessitate juris dicendi. Jurisdiction is a power introduced for the public good, on account of the necessity of dispensing justice. 10 Co. 73 a.

Jurisprudentia est divinarum atque humanarum rerum notitia; justi atque injusti scientia. Jurisprudence is the knowledge of things divine and human; the science of the just and the unjust. Dig. 1. 1. 10. 2; Inst. 1. 1. 1; Bract. 3.

Jurisprudentia legis communis Angliæ est scientia socialis et copiosa. The jurisprudence of the common law of England is a science sociable and copious. 7 Co. 28 a.

Jus accrescendi inter mercatores locum non habet, pro beneficio commercii. The right of survivorship does not exist among merchants, for the benefit of commerce. Co. Litt. 182; Broom, Max. 465; Lindl. Part., 4th ed. 664.

Jus accrescendi præfertur oneribus. The right of survivorship is preferred to incumbrances. Co. Litt. 185.

Jus accrescendi præfertur ultima voluntati. The right of survivorship is preferred to a last will. Co. Litt. 185 b.

Jus civile est quod sibi populus constituit. The civil law is what a people establishes for itself. Inst. 1. 2. 1.  1 .Johns. (N. Y.) 424, 426.

Jus descendit, et non terra. A right descends, not the land. Co. Litt. 345.

Jus dicere, et non jus dare. To declare the law, not to make It. 7 Term 696; Arg. 10 Johns. (N. Y.) 566; 7 Exch. 643; 2 Eden 29; 4 C. B. 560, 561; Broom, Max. 140.

Jus est ars boni et æqui. Law is the science of what is good and just. Dig. 1. 1. 1. 1.

Jus est norma recti; et quicquid est contra normam recti est injuria. The law is the rule of right; and whatever is contrary to the rule of right is an injury. 3 Bulstr. 313.

Jus et fraus nunquam cohabitant. Right and fraud never live together. 10 Co. 45.

Jus ex injuria non oritur. A right cannot arise from a wrong. 4 Bingh. 639; Broom, Max. 738, n.

Jus in re inhærit assibus usufructuarii. A right in the thing cleaves to the person of the usufructuary.

Jus naturale est quod apud homines eandem habet potentiam. Natural right is that which has the same force among all mankind. 7 Co. 12.

Jus non habenti tute non paretur. It is safe not to obey him who has no right. Hob. 146.

Jus publicum privatorum pactis mutari non potest. A public right cannot be changed by agreement of private parties. Dig. 2. 14. 38; cited arg. in 3 C. & F. 621; 4 id. 241.

Jus quo universitates utuntur est idem quod habent privati. The law which governs corporations is the same as that which governs individuals. 16 Mass. 44.

Jus respicit æquitatem. Law regards equity. Co. Litt. 24 b; Broom, Max. 151; 17 Q. B. 292.

Jus superveniens auctori accrescit successori. A right growing to a possessor accrues to a successor. Halber. Max. 76.

Jus vendit quod usus approbavit. The law dispenses what use has approved. Ellesmere, Postn. 35.

Jusjurandi forma verbis differt, re convenit; hunc enim sensum habere debet, ut Deus invocetur. The form of taking an oath differs in language, agrees in meaning; for it ought to have this sense, that the Deity is invoked. Grotius, b. 2. c. 13, s. 10.

Jusjurandum inter alios factum nec nocere nec prodesse debet. An oath made between third parties ought neither to hurt nor profit. 4 Inst. 279.

Justitia debet esse Libera, quia nihil iniquius venali justitia; Plena, quia justitia non debet claudicare; et Celeris, quia dilatio est quædam negatio. Justice ought to be unbought, because nothing is more hateful than venal justice; full, for justice ought not to halt; and quick, for delay is a kind of denial. 2 Inst. 56.

Justitia est constans et perpetua voluntas jus suum cuique tribuendi. Justice is a steady and unceasing disposition to render to every man his due. Inst. 11. pr.; Dig. 1. 1. 10.

Justitia est virtus excellens et Altissimo complacens. Justice is an excellent virtue and pleasing to the Most High. 4 Inst. 28.

Justitia firmatur solium. By justice the throne is established. 3 Inst. 140.

Justitia nemini neganda est. Justice is to be denied to none. Jenk. Cent. 178.

Justitia non est neganda, non differenda. Justice is not to be denied nor delayed. Jenk. Cent. 76.

Justitia non novit patrem nec matrem, solum veritatem spectat justitia. Justice knows neither father nor mother, justice looks to truth alone. 1 Bulstr. 199.

Justum non est aliquem antenatum mortuum facere bastardum, qui pro tota vita sua pro legitimo habetur. It is not just to make a bastard after his death one elder born who all his life has been accounted legitimate. 8 Co. 101.

King can do no wrong. See King Can Do No Wrong.

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L’obligation sans cause, ou sur une fausse cause, ou sur cause illicite, ne peut avoir aucun effet. An obligation without consideration, or upon a false consideration (which fails), or upon unlawful consideration, cannot have any effect. Code 3. 3. 4; Chitty, Contr. 11th Am. ed. 26, note.

L’ou le ley done chose, la ceo done remedie a vener a ceo. Where the law gives a right, it gives a remedy to recover. 2 RoUe 17.

La conscience est la plus changeante des régles. Conscience is the most changeable of rules.

La ley favour la vie d’un home. The law favors a man’s life. Year B. Hen. VI. 51.

La ley favour l’inheritance d’un home. The law favors a man’s inheritance. Year B. Hen. VI. 51.

La ley voit plus tost suffer un mischiefe que un inconvenience. The law will sooner suffer a mischief than an inconvenience. Littleton § 231.

Lata culpa dolo æquiparatur. Gross negligence is equal to fraud.

Law construeth every act to he lawful when it standeth indifferent whether it be lawful or not. Wing. Max. 194.

Law construeth things according to common possibility or intendment. Wing. Max. 189.

Law construeth things to the best. Wing. Max. 193.

Law construeth things with equity and moderation. Wing. Max. 183; Pinch, Law 74.

Law disfavoreth impossibilities. Wing. Max. 165.

Law disfavoreth improbabilities. Wing. Max. 161.

Law favoreth charity. Wing. Max. 135.

Law favoreth common right. Wing. Max. 144.

Law favoreth diligence, and therefore hateth folly and negligence. Wing. Max. 172; Finch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 70.

Law favoreth honor and order. Wing. Max. 199.

Law favoreth justice and right. Wing. Max. 141.

Law favoreth life, liberty, and dower. 4 Bacon, Works 345.

Law favoreth mutual recompense. Wing. Max. 100; Finch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 42.

Law favoreth possession where the right is equal. Wing. Max. 98; Finch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 36.

Law favoreth public commerce. Wing. Max. 198.

Law favoreth public quiet. Wing. Max. 200; Finch, Law, b. 1, c. 3. n. 54.

Law favoreth speeding of men’s causes. Wing. Max. 175.

Law favoreth things for the commonwealth. Wing. Max. 197; Finch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 53.

Law favoreth truth, faith, and certainty. Wing. Max. 164.

Law hateth delays. Wing. Max. 176; Pinch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 7L.

Law hateth new inventions and innovations. Wing. Max. 204.

Law hateth wrong. Wing. Max. 146; Pinch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 62.

Law of itself prejudiceth no man. Wing. Max. 148; Finch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 63.

Law respecteth matter of substance more than matter of circumstance. Wing. Max. 101; Pinch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 39.

Law respecteth possibility of things. Wing. Max. 140; Pinch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 40.

Law respecteth the bonds of nature. Wing. Max. 78; Pinch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 29.

Lawful things are well mixed, unless a form of law oppose. Bacon, Max. Reg. 23. (The law giveth that favor to lawful acts, that although they be executed by several authorities, yet the whole act is good. Ibid.)

Le contrat fait la loi. The contract makes the law.

Le ley de Dieu et ley de terre sont tout un, et l’un et I’autre preferre et favour le common et publique bien del terre. The law of God and the law of the land are all one; and both preserve and favor the common and public good of the land. Keliw. 191.

Le ley est le plus haut inheritance que le roy ad, car par le ley, il mesme et touts ses sujets sont rules, et si le ley ne fuit, nul roy ne nul inheritance serra. The law is the highest inheritance that the king possesses; for by the law both he and all his subjects are ruled; and if there were no law, there would be neither king nor inheritance.

Le salut du peuple est la suprime loi. The safety of the people is the highest law. Montes. Esp. Lois 1. xxvii. ch. 23; Broom, Max. 2, n.

Legatos violare contra jus gentium est. It is contrary to the law of nations to do violence to ambassadors. Branch, Princ.

Legatum morte testatoris tantum confirmatur, sicut donatio inter vivos traditione sola. A legacy is confirmed by the death of the testator, In the same manner as a gift from a living person is by delivery alone. Dyer 143.

Legatus regis vice fungitur a quo destinatur, et honorandus est sicut ille cujus vicem gerit. An ambassador fills the place of the king by whom he is sent, and is to be honored as he is whose place he fills. 12 Co. 17.

Legem enim contractus dat. The contract makes the law.

Legem terræ amittentes perpetuam infamiæ notam inde merito incurrunt. Those who do not preserve the law of the land, then justly incur the ineffaceable brand of infamy. 3 Inst. 221.

Leges Angliæ sunt tripartitæ: jus commune, consuetudines, ac decreta comitiorum. The laws of England are threefold: common law, customs, and decrees of parliament.

Leges figendi et refigendi consuetude est periculosissima. The custom of making and unmaking laws is a most dangerous one. 4 Co. pref.

Leges humanæ nascuntur, vivunt, et mcriuntur. Human laws are born, live, and die. 7 Co. 25; 2 Atk. 674; 11 C. B. 767 ; 1 Bla. Com. 89.

Leges natures perfectissimæ sunt et immutabiles; humani vero juris conditio semper in infinitum decurrit, et nihil est in eo quod perpetuo stare possit. Leges humanæ nascuntur, vivunt, moriuntur. The laws of nature are most perfect and immutable; but the condition of human law is an unending succession, and there is nothing in it which can continue perpetually. Human laws are born, live, and die. 7 Co. 25.

Leges non verbis sed rebus sunt impositæ. Laws are imposed on things, not words. 10 Co. 101.

Leges posteriores priores contrarias abrogant. Subsequent laws repeal prior conflicting ones. Broom, Max. 27, 29; 2 Rolle 410 ; 11 Co. 626, 630; 12 Allen (Mass.) 434.

Leges suum ligent latorem. Laws should bind the proposers of them. Fleta, b. 1, c. 17, § 11.

Leges vigilantibus, non dormientibus subveniunt. The laws aid the vigilant, not the negligent. 16 How. Pr. (N. Y.) 142, 144.

Legibus sumptis desinentibus, lege naturæ utendum est. When laws imposed by the state fail, we must act by the law of nature. 2 Rolle 298.

Legis constructio non facit injuriam. The construction of law does no wrong. Co. Litt. 183.

Legis figendi et refigendi consuetudo periculosissima est. The custom of fixing and refixing (making and annulling) laws is most dangerous.

Legis interpretatio legis vim obtinet. The construction of law obtains the force of law. Branch, Princ.

Legis minister non tenetur, in executione officii sui, fugere aut retrocedere. The minister of the law is not bound, in the execution of his office, either to fly or retreat. 6 Co. 68.

Legislatorum est viva vox, rebus et non verbis legem imponere. The voice of legislators is a living voice, to impose laws on things and not on words. 10 Co. 101; Bart Max. 211.

Legitime imperanti parere necesse est. One who commands lawfully must be obeyed. Jenk. Cent 120.

Les fictions naissent de la loi, et non la loi des fictions. Fictions arise from the law, and not law from fictions.

Les lois ne se chargent de punir que les actions exterieures. Laws do not undertake to punish other than outward actions. Montes. Esp. Lois, b. 12, c. 11; Broom, Max. 311.

Lex æquitate gaudet; appetit perfectum; est norma recti. The law delights in equity; it covets perfection; it is a rule of right. Jenk. Cent 36.

Lex aliguando sequitur æquitatem. The law sometimes follows equity. 3 Wils. 119.

Lex Angliæ est lex misericordiæ. The law of England is a law of mercy. 2 Inst. 619.

Lex Angliæ non patitur absurdum. The law of England does not suffer an absurdity. 9 Co. 22.

Lex Angliæ nonquam sine parliamento mutari potest. The law of England cannot be changed but by parliament. 2 Inst. 218, 619.

Lex Angliæ nunquam matria sed semper patris conditionem imitari partum judicat. The law of England rules that the offspring shall always follow the condition of the father, never that of the mother. Co. Litt. 123; Bart. Max. 59.

Lex beneficialis rei consimili remedium præstat. A beneficial law affords a remedy in a similar case. 2 Inst. 689.

Lex citius tolerare vult privatum damnum quam publicum malum. The law would rather tolerate a private loss than a public evil. Co. Litt. 152 b.

Lex contra id quod præsumit probationem non recipit. The law admits no proof against that which it presumes. Lofft 573.

Lex de futuro, judex de præterito. The law provides for the future, the judge for the past.

Lex deficere non potest in justitia exhibenda. The law ought not to fail in dispensing Justice. Co. Litt. 197.

Lex dilationes semper exhorret. The law always abhors delay. 2 Inst. 240.

Lex est ab æterno. The law is from everlasting. Branch, Princ.

Lex est dictamen rationis. Law is the dictate of reason. Jenk. Cent. 117.

Lex est norma recti. Law is a rule of right.

Lex est ratio summa, quæ jubet quæ sunt utilia et necessaria, et contraria prohibet. Law is the perfection of reason, which commands what is useful and necessary, and forbids the contrary. Co. Litt. 319 b.

Lex est sanctio sancta, jubens honesta, et prohibens contraria. Law is a sacred sanction, commanding what is right and prohibiting the contrary. 2 Inst. 687; 1 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 44, n.

Lex est tutissima cassis; sub clypeo legis nemo decipitur. Law is the safest helmet; under the shield of the law no one is deceived. 2 Inst. 56.

Lex favet doti. The law favors dower, 3 & 4 Will. IV. c. 105.

Lex fingit ubi subsistit æquitas. Law creates a fiction where equity exists. Branch, Princ.

Lex intendit vicinum vicini facta scire. The law presumes that one neighbor knows the actions of another. Co. Litt. 78 b. See Jury.

Lex necessitatis est lex tcmporis, i. e. instantis. The law of necessity is the law of time, that is, time present. Hob. 159.

Lex neminem cogit ad vana seu inutilia peragenda. The law forces no one to do vain or useless things. Wing. Max. 600; Broom, Max. 252; 3 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 144; 2 Bingh. N. c. 121; 13 East 42 ; 15 Pick. (Mass.) 190; 7 Cush. (Mass.) 393; 14 Gray (Mass.) 78; 7 Pa. 206; 3 Johns. (N. Y.) 698. See Impossibility.

Lex neminem cogit ostendere quod nescire præsumitur. The law forces no one to make known what he is presumed not to know. Lofft 569.

Lex nemini facit injuriam. The law does wrong to no one. Branch, Princ.; 66 Pa. 157.

Lex nemini operatur iniquum, nemini facit injuriam. The law never works an injury, or does a wrong. Jenk. Cent. 22.

Lex nil facit frustra, nil jubet frustra. The law does nothing and commands nothing in vain. Broom, Max. 252; 3 Bulstr. 279; Jenk. Cent. 17.

Lex non cogit ad impossibilia. The law requires nothing impossible. Broom, Max. 242; Co. Litt. 231 b; Hob. 96; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 861; 17 N. H. 411.

Lex non curat de minimis. The law does not regard small matters. Hob. 88.

Lex non deficit in justitia exhibenda. The law does not fail in showing justice. Jenk. Cent. 31.

Lex non exacte definit, sed arbitrio boni viri permittit. The law does not define exactly, but trusts in the judgment of a good man.

Lex non favet votis delicatorum. The law fayors not the wishes of the dainty. 9 Co. 58 a; Broom, Max. 379.

Lex non intendit aliquid impossibile. The law intends not anything impossible. 12 Co. 89 a.

Lex non patitur fractiones et divisiones statutorum. The law suffers no fractions and divisions of estates. 1 Co. 87; Branch, Princ.

Lex non pæcipit inutilia, quia inutilis labor stultus. The law commands not useless things, because useless labor is foolish. Co. ?Litt 197; 5 Co. 89 a; 112 Mass. 400.

Lex non requirit verificari quod apparet curiæ. The law does not require that to be proved which is apparent to the court. 9 Co. 64. See Judicial Notice.

Lex plus laudatur quando ratione probatur. The law is the more praised when it is consonant with reason. 3 Term 146; 7 id. 252; 7 A. & B. 657; Broom, Max. 159.

Lex posterior derogat priori. A prior statute shall give place to a later. Mack. Civ. Law, 6; Broom, Max. 27, 28.

Lex prospicit, non respicit. The law looks forward, not backward. Jenk. Cent. 284.

Lex punit mendaciam. The law punishes falsehood. Jenk. Cent. 15.

Lex rejicit superflua, pugnantia, incongrua. The law rejects superfluous, contradictory, and incongruous things. Jenk. Cent. 133, 140, 176.

Lex reprobat moram. The law disapproves of delay.

Lex respicit æquitatem. Law regards equity. See 14 Q. B. 504, 511, 512; Broom, Max. 151.

Lex semper dabit remedium. The law will always give a remedy. Bac. Abr. Actions in general (B); Branch, Princ.; Broom, Max. 192; 12 A. & B. 266; 7 Q. B. 451; 5 Rawle (Pa.) 89.

Lex semper intendit quod convenit rationi. The law always intends what is agreeable to reason. Co. Litt. 78.

Lex spectat naturæ ordinem. The law regards the order of nature. Co. Litt. 197; Broom, Max. 252.

Lex succurrit ignoranti. The law succors the ignorant. Jenk. Cent. 15.

Lex succurrit minoribus. The law assists minors. Jenk. Cent. 57.

Lex uno ore omnes alloquitur. The law speaks to all with one mouth. 2 Inst. 184.

Lex vigilantibus, non dormientibus, subvenit. Law assists the wakeful, not the sleeping. 1 Story, Contr. § 529.

Liberata pecunia non liberat offerentem. Money being restored does not set free the party offering. Co. Litt. 207.

Libertas est naturalis facultas ejus quod cuique facere libet, nisi quod de jure aut vi prohibetur. Liberty is the natural power of doing whatever one pleases, except that which is restrained by law or force. Co. Litt. 116; Sharsw. Bla. Com. Introd. 6, n.

Libertas inæstimabilis res est. Liberty is an inestimable good. Dig. 60. 17. 106; Fleta, lib. 2, c. 51, § 13.

Libertas non recipit æstimationem. Freedom does not admit of valuation. Bracton 14.

Libertas omnibus rebus favorabilior est. Liberty is more favored than all things. Dig. 50. 17. 122.

Liberum corpus æstimationem non recipit. The body of a freeman does not admit of valuation. Dig. 9. 3. 7.

Liberum est cuique apud se explorare an expediat sibi consilium. Every one is free to ascertain for himself whether a recommendation is advantageous to his interests.

Librorum appellatione continentur omnia volumina, sive in charta, sive in membrana sint, sive in quavis alia materia. Under the name of books are contained all volumes, whether upon paper, or parchment, or any other material. Dig. 32. 52. pr. et per tot.

Licet dispositio de interesse futuro sit inutilis tamen potest fieri declaratio præcedens quæ sortiatur effectum interveniente novo actu. Although the grant of a future interest be inoperative, yet a declaration precedent may be made which may take effect, provided a new act intervene. Bacon, Max. Reg. 14; Broom, Max. 498.

Licita bene miscentur, formula nisi juris obstet. Lawful acts may well be fused into one, unless some form of law forbid. (E. g. Two having a right to convey, each a moiety, may unite and convey the whole.) Bacon, Max. 94; Crabb, R. P. 179.

Ligeantia est quasi legis essentia; est vinculum fidei. Allegiance is, as it were, the essence of the law; it is the bond of faith. Co. Litt. 129.

Ligeantia naturalis nullis claustris coercetur, nullis metis refæmatur, nullis finibus premitur. Natural allegiance is restrained hy no barriers, curbed by no bounds, compressed by no limits. 7 Co. 10.

Ligna et lapides sub armorum appellatione non continentur. Sticks and stones are not contained under the name of arms. Bract. 144 b.

Linea recta est index sui et obliqui; lex est linea recti. A right line is an index of itself and of an oblique; law is a line of right. Co. Litt. 158.

Linea recta semper præfertur transversali. The right line is always preferred to the collateral. Co. Litt. 10; Fleta, lib. 6, c. 1; 1 Steph. Com., 4th ed. 406; Broom, Max. 529.

Literæ patentes regis non erunt vacuæ. Letters-patent of the king shall not be void. 1 Bulstr. 6.

Litis nomen omnem actionem significat, sive in rem, sive in personam sit. The word “lis” i. e. a lawsuit signifies every action, whether in rem or in personam. Co. Litt. 292.

Litus est quousque maxirmus fluctus a mari pervenit. The shore is where the highest wave from the sea has reached. Dig. 50. 16. 98; Ang. Tide- Waters 67.

Locus contractus regit actum. The place of the contract governs the act. 2 Kent 458; L. R. 1 Q. B. 119; 91 U. S. 406, 23 L. Ed. 245. See Lex Loci.

Locus pro solutione reditus aut pecuniæ secundum conditionem dimissionis aut obligationis est stricte observandus. The place for the payment of rent or money is to be strictly observed according to the condition of the lease or obligation. 4 Co. 73.

Longa patientia trahitur ad consensum. Long sufferance is construed as consent. Fleta, lib. 4, c. 26, § 4.

Longa possessio est pacis jus. Long possession is the law of peace. Co. Litt. 6.

Longa possessio parit jus possidendi, et tollit actionem vero domino. Long possession produces the right of possession, and takes away from the true owner his action. Co. Litt. 110; see 115 U. S. 623, 6 Sup. Ct. 209, 29 L. Ed. 483; Adverse Possession.

Longum tempus, et longus usus qui excedit memoriam hominum, sufficit pro jure. Long time and long use beyond the memory of man suffice for right. Co. Litt. 115.

Loquendum ut vulgus, sentiendum ut docti. We should speak as the common people, we should think as the learned. 7 Co. 11.

Lubricum linquæ non facile trahendum, est in pænam. The slipperiness of the tongue (i. e. its liability to err) ought not lightly to be subjected to punishment. Cro. Car. 117.

Lucrum facere ex pupilli tutela tutor non debet. A guardian ought not to make money out of the guardianship of his ward. 1 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 527.

Lunaticus, qui gaudet in lucidis intervallis. He is a lunatic who enjoys lucid intervals., 1 Story, Cont. § 73.

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Magis dignum trahit ad se minus dignum. The more worthy draws to itself the less worthy. Year B. 20 Hen. VI. 2, arg.

Magister rerum usus; magistra rerum experientia. Use is the master of things; experience is the mistress of things. Co. Litt 69, 229; Wing. Max. 752.

Magna culpa dolus est. Gross negligence is equivalent to fraud. Dig. 50. 16. 226; 2 Spear (S. C.) 256; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 646.

Magna negligentia culpa est, magna culpa dolus est. Gross negligence is a fault, gross fault is a fraud. Dig. 50. 16. 226. (Culpa is an intermediate degree of negligence between negligentia, or lack of energetic care, and dolus, or fraud, seeming to approach nearly to our “negligence” in meaning.) See Whart. Negl.

Maihemium est homicidium inchoatum. Mayhem is incipient homicide. 3 Inst. 118.

Maihemium est inter crimina majora minimum, et inter minora maximum. Mayhem is the least of great crimes, and the greatest of small. Co. Litt. 127.

Major continet in se minus. The greater includes the less. 19 Vin. Abr. 379.

Major hæreditas venit unicuique nostrum a jure et legibus quam a parentibus. A greater inheritance comes to every one of us from right and the laws than from parents. 2 Inst. 56.

Major numerus in se continet minorem. The greater number contains in itself the less. Bracton 16.

Majore pæna affectus quam legibus statuta est, non est infamis. One affected with a greater punishment than is provided by law is not infamous 4 Inst. 66.

Majori summæ minor inest. The lesser is included in the greater sum. 2 Kent 618; Story, Ag § 172.

Majus dignum trahit ad se minus dignum. The more worthy or the greater draws to it the less worthy or the lesser. 5 Vin. Abr. 584, 586; Co. Litt. 43, 355 b; 2 Inst. 307; Finch, Law 22; Broom, Max. 176, n.

Majus est delictum seipsum occidere quam alium. It is a greater crime to kill one’s self than another. Bart. Max. 108. See Suicide.

Mala grammatica non vitiat chartam; sed in expositione instrumentorum mala grammatica quoad fieri possit evitanda est. Bad grammar does not vitiate a deed; but in the construction of instruments, bad grammar, as far as it can be done, is to be avoided. 6 Co. 39; 9 id. 48; Vin. Abr. Grammar (A); Lofft 441; Broom, Max. 686.

Maledicta expositio quæ corrumpit textum. It is a cursed construction which corrupts the text. 2 Co. 24; 4 id. 35; 11 id. 34; Wing. Max. 26; Broom, Max. 622.

Maleficia non debent remanere impunita, et impunitas continuum affectum tribuit delinquenti. Evil deeds ought not to remain unpunished, and impunity affords continual incitement to the delinquent. 4 Co. 45.

Maleficia propositis distinguuntur. Evil deeds are distinguished from evil purposes. Jenk. Gent. 290.

Malitia est acida, est mali animi affectus. Malice is sour, it is the quality of a bad mind. 2 Bulstr. 49.

Malitia supplet ætatem. Malice supplies age. Dyer 104; 1 Bla. Com. 464; 4 id. 22, 23, 312; Broom, Max. 316. See Malice.

Malum hominum est obviandum. The malicious plans of men must be avoided. 4 Co. 15.

Malum non habet efficientem, sed deficientem causam. Evil has not an efficient, but a deficient, cause. 3 Inst. Præme.

Malum non præsumitur. Evil is not presumed. 4 Co. 72; Branch, Prince.

Malum quo communius eo pejus. The mere common the evil, the worse. Branch, Princ.

Malus usus est abolendus. An evil custom ought to be abolished. Co. Litt. 141; Broom, Max. 921; Litt. § 212; 6 Q. B. 701; 12 id. 845; 2 M. & K. 449; 71 Pa. 69.

Mandata licita strictam recipiunt interpretationcm, sed illicita latam et extensam. Lawful commands receive a strict interpretation, but unlawful, a wide or broad construction. Bacon, Max. Reg. 16.

Mandatarius terminos sibi positos transgredi non potest. A mandatary cannot exceed the bounds of his authority. Jenk. Cent. 53.

Mandatum nisi gratuitum nullum est. Unless a mandate is gratuitous, it is not a mandate. Dig. 17. 1. 1. 4; Inst. 3. 27; 1 Bouv. Inst, n. 1070.

Manifesta probatione non indigent. Manifest things require no proof. 7 Co. 40 b.

Maris et fæminæ conjunctio est de jure naturæ. The union of male and female is founded on the law of nature. 7 Co. 13 b.

Matrimonia debent esse libera. Marriages ought to be free. Halkers. Max. 86; 2 Kent 102.

Matrimonium subsequens tollit peccatum præcedens. A subsequent marriage cures preceding fault. Bart. Max. 218.

Matter en ley ne serra mise en bouche del jurors. Matter of law shall not be put into the mouth of jurors. Jenk. Cent. 180.

Matutiora sunt vota mulierum quam virorum. The wishes of women are of quicker growth than those of men (i. e. women arrive at maturity earlier than men), 7 Co. 71 a; Bract. 86 b.

Maxime ita dicta quia maxima est ejus dignitas et certissima auctoritas, atgue quod maxime omnibus protetur. A maxim is so called because its dignity is chiefest, aud its authority the most certain, and because universally approved by all. Co. Litt. 11.

Maxime paci sunt contraria vis et injuria. The greatest enemies to peace are force and wrong. Go. Litt. 161.

Maximus erroris populus magister. The people is the greatest master of error. Bacon, Max.

Melior est causa possidentis. The cause of the possessor is preferable. Dig. 50. 17. 126. 2,

Melior est conditio defendentis. The cause of the defendant is the better. Broom, Max. 715, 719; Dig. 50. 17. 126. 2; Hob. 199; 1 Mass. 66; 8 id. 307; 4 Cush. (Mass.) 405.

Melior est conditio possidentis et rei quam actoris. Better is the condition of the possessor and that of the defendant than that of the plaintiff. Broom, Max. 714, 719; 4 Inst. 180; Vaugh. 58, 60; Hob. 103.

Melior est conditio possidentis, ubi neuter jus habet. Better is the condition of the possessor where neither of the two has a right. Jenk. Cent. 118.

Melior est justitia vere præveniens quam severe puniens. That justice which justly prevents a crime is better than that which severely punishes it.

Meliorem conditionem suam facere potest minor, deteriorem nequaquam. A minor can improve or make his condition better, but never worse. Co. Litt. 337 b.

Melius est in tempore occurrere quam post, causam vulneratum remedium quærere. It is better to meet a thing in time, than to seek a remedy after a wrong has been inflicted. 2 Inat. 299.

Melius est jus deficients quam jus incertum. Law that is deficient is better than law that is uncertain. Lofft 395.

Melius est omnia mala pati quam malo consentire. It is better to suffer every wrong or ill, than to consent to it. 3 Inst. 23.

Melius est recurrere quam malo currere. It is better to recede than to proceed wrongly. 4 Inst. 176.

Mens testatorsis in testaments spectanda est. In wills, the intention of the testator is to be regarded. Jenk. Cent. 277.

Mentiri est contra mentem ire. To lie is to go against the mind. 3 Bulstr. 260.

Mercis appellatio ad res mobiles tantum pertinet. The term merchandise belongs to movable things only. Dig. 50. 16. 66.

Merito beneficium legis amittit, qui legem ipsam subvertere intendit. He justly loses the protection of the law, who attempts to infringe the law. 2 Inst. 253.

Merx est quidquid vendi potest. Merchandise is whatever can be sold. 3 Metc. (Mass.) 367. See Merchandise.

Meum est promittere, non dimittere. It is mine to promise, not to discharge. 2 Rolle 39.

Minima pæna corporalis est major qualibet pecuniaria. The smallest bodily punishment is greater than any pecuniary one. 2 Inst. 220.

Minime mutanda sunt quæ certam habuerunt interpretationem. Things which have had a certain interpretation are to be altered as little as possible. Co. Litt. 365.

Minor ante tempus agere non potest in casu proprietatis, nec etiam convenire. A minor before majority cannot act in a case of property, nor even agree. 2 Inst. 291.

Minor jurare no potest. A minor cannot make oath. Co. Litt. 172 b. An infant cannot be sworn on a jury. Littleton 289.

Minor minorem custodire non debet; alios enim præsumitur male regere qui seipsum regere nescit. A minor ought not be guardian of a minor, for he is presumed to govern others ill who does not know how to govern himself. Co. Litt. 88.

Minor non tenetur respondere durante minori ætati; nisi in causa dotis, propter favorem. A minor is not bound to answer during his minority, except as a matter of favour in a cause of dower. 3 Bulstr. 143.

Minor, qui infra ætatem 12 annorum fuerit, utlagari no potest nec extra legem poni, quia ante talem ætatem, non est sub lege aliqua, nec in decenna. A minor who is under twelve years of age cannot be outlawed, nor placed without the laws because before such age he is not under any laws, nor in a decennary. Co Litt. 128.

Minor 17 antis non admittitur fore executorem. A minor under seventeen years of age is not admitted to be an executor. 6 Co. 67.

Minus solvit, qui tardius solvit; nam et tempore minus solvitur. He does not pay who pays too late; for, from the delay, he is judged not to pay. Dig. 50. 16. 12. 1.

Misera est servitus, ubi jus est vagum aut incertum. It is a miserable slavery where the law is vague or uncertain. 4 Inst. 246; 11 Pet. (U. S.) 286, 9 L. Ed. 709; Broom, Max. 150.

Mitius imperanti melius paretur. The more mildly one commands, the better is  he obeyed. 3 Inst. 24.

Mobilia no habent situm. Movables have no situs.

Mobilia personam sequuntur, immobilia situm. Movable things follow the person; immovable, their locality. Story, Confl. L., 3d ed. 638; 166 U. S. 185, 17 Sup. Ct. 604, 41 L. Ed. 965; id. 165 U. S. 194, 17 Sup. Ct. 305, 41 L. Ed. 683.

Mobilia sequuntur personam. Movables follow the person. Story, Confl. L., 3d ed. 638, 639; Broom, Max. 522. See Tax. It does not apply to bona vacantia (escheat); [1902] 1 Ch. 847.

Modica circumstantia facti jus mutat. A small circumstance attending an act may change the law.

Modus de non decimando non valet. A modus (prescription) not to pay tithes is void. Lofft 427; Cro. Eliz. 511; 2 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 31.

Modus et conventio vincunt legem. The form of agreement and the convention of the parties overrule the law. 13 Pick. (Mass.) 491; Broom, Max. 689; 2 Co. 73.

Modus legem dat donationi. The manner gives law to a gift. Co. Litt. 19 a; Broom, Max. 459.

Moneta est justum medium et mensura rerum commutabilium, nam per medium monetæ fit omnium rerum conveniens, et justa æstimatio. Money is the just medium and measure of all exchangeable things, for by the medium of money a convenient and just estimation of all things is made. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 922; Bart. Max. 222.

Monetandi jus comprehenditur in regalibus quæ nunquam a regio sceptro abdicantur. The right of coining is comprehended amongst those rights of royalty which are never relinquished by the kingly sceptre. Dav. 18.

Mora reprobatur in lege. Delay is disapproved of in law. Jenk. Cent. 51.

Mors dicitur ultimum supplicium. Death is denominated the extreme penalty. 3 Inst. 212.

Mors omnia solvit. Death dissolves all things.

Mortis momentum est ultimum vitæ momentum. The last moment of life is the moment of death. 4 Bradf. (N. Y.) 245, 250.

Mortuus exitus non est exitus. To be dead-born is not to be born. Co. Litt. 29. See Domat, liv. prel. t. 2, s. 1, n. 4, 6.

Mos retinendus est fidelissimæ vetustatis. A custom of the truest antiquity is to be retained. 4 Co. 78.

Mulcta damnum famæ non irrogat. A fine does not impose a loss of reputation. Code, 1. 54; Calvinus, Lex.

Multa conceduntur per obliquum quæ non conceduntur de directo. Many things are conceded indirectly which are not allowed directly. 6 Co. 47.

Multa fidem promissa levant. Many promises lessen confidence. 11 Cush. (Mass.) 330,

Multa ignoramus quæ nobis non laterent si veterum lectio nobis fuit familiaris. We are ignorant of many things which would not be hidden from us if the reading of old authors were familiar to us. 10 Co. 73.

Multa in jure communi contra rationem disputandi pro communi utilitate introducta sunt. Many things have been introduced into the common law, with a view to the public good, which are inconsistent with sound reason. Co. Litt. 70; Broom, Max. 158; 2 Co. 75. See 3 Term 146; 7 id. 252.

Multa multo exercitatione facilius quam regulis peircipies. You will perceive many things much more easily by practice than by rules. 4th Inst. 50.

Multa non vetat lex, quæ tamen tacite damnavit. The law fails to forbid many things which yet it has silently condemned.

Multa transeunt cum universitate quæ non per se transeunt. Many things pass as a whole which would not pass separately. Co. Litt. 12 a.

Multi multa, nemo omnia novit. Many men know many things, no one knows everything. 4 Inst. 348.

Multiplex et indistinctum parit confusionem; et quæstiones quo simpliciores, eo lucidiores. Multiplicity and indistinctness produce confusion; the more simple questions are, the more lucid they are. Hob. 335; Bart. Max. 70.

Multiplicata transgressione crescat pænæ inflictio. The infliction of punishment should be in proportion to the increase of crime. 2 Inst. 479.

Multitudinem decem faciunt. Ten make a multitude. Co. Litt. 247.

Multitudo errantium non parit errori patrocinium. The multitude of those who err is no protection for error. 11 Co. 75.

Multitudo imperitorum perdit curiam. A multitude of ignorant practitioners destroys a court. 2 Inst. 219.

Multo utilius est pauca idonea effundere quam multis inutilibus homines gravari. It is much more useful to pour forth a few useful things than to oppress men with many useless things. 4 Co. 20.

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Natura appetit perfectum, ita et lex. Nature aspires to perfection, and so does the law. Hob. 144.

Natura fide jussionis sit strictissimi juris et non durat vel extendatur de re ad rem, de persona ad personam, de tempore ad tempus. The nature of the contract of suretyship is strictissimi juris, and cannot endure nor be extended from thing to thing, from person to person, or from time to time. Burge, Sur. 40.

Natura non facit saltum, ita nec lex. Nature makes no leap, nor does the law. Co. Litt. 238.

Natura non facit vacuum, nec lex supervacuum. Nature makes no vacuum, the law nothing purposeless. Co. Litt. 79.

Naturæ vis maxima; natura bis maxima. The force of nature is greatest; nature is doubly great. 2 Inst. 564.

Naturale est quidlibet dissolvi eo modo quo ligatur. It is natural for a thing to be unbound in the same way in which it was bound. Jenk. Cent. 66; Broom, Max. 877.

Nec curia deficeret in justitia exhibenda. Nor should the court be deficient in showing justice. 4 Inst. 63.

Nec tempus nec locus occurrit regi. Neither time nor place bars the king. See Limitations, Statute Of. Jenk. Cent. 190.

Nec veniam effuso sanguine casus habet. “Where blood is spilled, the case is unpardonable. 3 Inst. 57.

Nec veniam, Iæso numine, casus habet. Where the Divinity is insulted, the case is unpardonable. Jenk. Cent. 167.

Necessarium est quod non potest alitor se habere. That is necessary which cannot be otherwise.

Necessitas est lex temporis et loci. Necessity is the law of time and place. 8 Co. 69.

Necessitas excusat oaut extenuat delictum in capitalibus, quod non operatur idem in civilibus. Necessity excuses or extenuates delinquency in capital cases, but not in civil. See Necessity.

Necessitas facit licitum quod alias non est licitum. Necessity makes that lawful which otherwise is unlawful. 10 Co. 61.

Necessitas inducit privilegium quoad jura privata. With regard to private rights, necessity privileges. Bacon, Max. Reg. 5. Broom, Max. 11.

Necessitas non habet legem. Necessity has no law. Plowd. 18. See Necessity, and 15 Vin. Abr. 534; 22 id. 540; Salmond, Jurispr. 643.

Necessitas publica major est quam privata. Public necessity is greater than private. Bacon, Max. Reg. 5; Noy, Max., 9th ed. 34; Broom, Max. 18.

Necessitas, quod cogit, defendit. Necessity defends what it compels. Hale, P. C. 54; Broom, Max. 14.

Necessitas sub lege non continetur, quia quod alias non est licitum necessitas facit licitum. Necessity is not restrained by law; since what otherwise is not lawful, necessity makes lawful. Bart. Max. 227; 2 Inst. 326; Fleta, 1. 5, c. 23, § 14.

Necessitas vincit legem. Necessity controls the law. Hob. 144; Cooley, Const. Lim. 747.

Necessity creates equity.

Negatio conclusionis est error in lege. The denial of a conclusion is error in law. Wing. Max. 268.

Negligentia semper habet infortuniam comitem. Negligence always has misfortune for a companion. Co. Litt. 246; Shep. Touch. 476.

Neminem lædit qui jure suo utitur. He who stands on his own rights injures no one.

Neminem opportet esse sapientiorem legibus. No man ought to be wiser than the laws. Co. Litt. 97.

Nemo admittendus est inhabilitare seipsum. No one is allowed to incapacitate himself. Jenk. Cent. 40. See Stultify.

Nemo agit in seipsum. No man acts against himself. Jenk. Cent. 40. Therefore no man can be a judge in his own cause. Broom, Max. 216, n.; 4 Bingh. 151; 2 Exch. 595 ; 18 C. B. 253 ; 2 B. & Ald. 822.

Nemo alienæ rei, sine satisdatione, defensor idoneus intelligitur. No man is considered a competent defender of another’s property, without security.

Nemo alienæ nomine lege agere potest. No man can sue at law in the name of another. Dig. 50. 17. 123.

Nemo aliquam partem recte intelligere potest, antequam totum iterum atque iterum perlegerit. No one can properly understand any part of a thing till he has read through the whole again and again. 3 Co. 59; Broom, Max. 593.

Nemo allegans suam turpitudinem audiendus est. No one alleging his own turpitude is to be heard as a witness. 4 Inst. 279; 12 Pick. (Mass.) 567. This is not a rule of evidence, but applies to a party seeking to enforce a right founded on an illegal consideration; 94 U. S. 426, 24 L. Ed. 204.

Nemo bis punitur pro eodem delicto. No one can be punished twice for the same offence. 2 Hawk. PI. Cr. 377; 4 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 315.

Nemo cogitationis pænam patitur. No one suffers punishment on account of his thoughts. Trayner. Max. 362.

Nemo cogitur rem suam vendere, etiam justo pretio. No one is bound to sell his property, even for a just price. But see Eminent Domain.

Nemo contra factum suum venire potest. No man can contradict his own deed. 2 Inst. 66.

Nemo damnum facit, nisi qui id fecit quod facere jus non habet. No one is considered as doing damage, unless he who is doing what he has no right to do. Dig. 50. 17. 151.

Nemo dat qui non habet. No one can give who does not possess. Broom, Max. 499, n.; Jenk. Cent. 250.

Nemo de domo sua extrahi debet. A citizen cannot be taken by force from his house. Dig. 50. 17. 103. (This maxim in favor of Roman liberty is much the same as that every man’s house is his castle.) Broom, Max. 432, n.

Nemo debet aliena jactura locupletari. No one ought to gain by another’s loss. 2 Kent. 336.

Nemo debet bis puniri pro una delicto. No one ought to be punished twice for the same offence. 4 Co. 43; 11 id. 59 b; Broom, Max. 348.

Nemo debet bis vexari pro eadem causa. No one should be twice harassed for the same cause. 2 Johns. (N. Y.) 182; 13 id. 153; 6 Hill (N. Y.) 133; 2 Barb. (N. Y.) 285; 6 id. 32. •

Nemo debet bis vexari pro una et eadem causa. No one ought to be twice vexed for one and the same cause. 5 Pet. (U. S.) 61, 8 L. Ed. 25; 1 Archb. Pr. by Ch. 476; 2 Mass. 356; 17 id. 425.

Nemo debet bis vexari, si constat curiæ quod sit pro una et eadem causa. No man ought to be twice punished, if it appear to the court that it is for one and the same cause of action. 5 Co. 61; Broom, Max. 327, 348; 5 Mass. 176; 7 id. 423; 99 id. 203.

Nemo debet esse judex in propria causa. No one should be judge in his own cause. 12 Co. 114 Broom, Max. 116. See Judge.

Nemo debet immiscere se rei alienæ ad se nihil pertinenti. No one should interfere in what in no way concerns him. Jenk. Cent. 18.

Nemo debet in communione invitus teneri. No one should be retained in a partnership against his will. 2 Sandf. (N. Y.) 668, 593; 1 Johns. (N. Y.) 106, 114.

Nemo debet locupletari ex alterius incommodo. No one ought to be made rich out of another’s loss. Jenk. Cent. 4; 10 Barb. (N. Y.) 626, 633.

Nemo debet rem suam sine factu aut defectu suo amittere. No one should lose his property without his own act or negligence. Co. Litt. 263.

Nemo duobus utatur officiis. No one should fill two offices. 4 Inst. 100.

Nemo ejusdem tenementi simul potest esse hæres et dominus. No one can be at the same time heir and lord of the same hef. 1 Reeve, Hist. Eng. Law 106.

Nemo est hæres viventis. No one is an heir to the living. Co. Litt. 22 b; 2 Bla. Com. 70, 107, 208; Vin. Abr. Abeyance; Broom, Max. 622; 7 Allen (Mass.) 75; 99 Mass. 456; 118 id. 345.

Nemo est supra leges. No one is above the law. Lofft 142.

Nemo ex alterius facto prægravari debet. No man ought to be burdened in consequence of another’s act. 2 Kent 646; Pothier, Ohl., Evans, ed. 133.

Nemo ex consilio obligatur. No man is bound for the advice he gives. Story, Bailm. § 155.

Nemo ex proprio dolo consequitur actionem. No one acquires a right of action from his own wrong. Broom, Max. 297; 43 Pac. (Cal.) 412.

Nemo ex suo delicto meliorem suam conditionem facere potest. No one can improve his condition by his own wrong. Dig. 60. 17. 134. 1.

Nemo in propria causa testis esse debet. No one can be a witness in his own cause. (But to this rule there are many exceptions.) 1 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 443; 3 id. 370.

Nemo inauditus condemnari debet, si non sit contumax. No man ought to be condemned unheard, unless he be contumacious. Jenk. Cent. 18. No man shall be condemned in his rights of property, as well as in his rights of person, without his day in court.

Nemo jus sibi dicere potest. No one can declare the law for himself. (No one is entitled to take the law into his own hands.) Trayner, Max, 366.

Nemo militans Deo implicetur secularibus negotiis. No man warring for God should be troubled by secular business. Co. Litt. 70.

Nemo nascitur artifex. No one is born an artificer. Co. Litt. 97.

Nemo patriam in qua natus est exuere, nec ligeantiæ debitum ejurare possit. No man can renounce the country in which he was born, nor abjure the obligation of his allegiance. Co. Litt. 129 a; 3 Pet. (U. S.) 165, 7 L. Ed. 617; Broom, Max. 75. See Allegiance; Expatriation; Naturalization.

Nemo plus commodi hæredi suo relinquit quam ipse habuit. No one leaves a greater advantage to his heir than he had himself. Dig. 50. 17. 120.

Nemo plus juris ad alienum transferre potest quam ipse haberet. One cannot transfer to another a larger right than he himself has. Dig. 50. 17. 54; Co. Litt. 309 b; Wing. Max. 66; Broom, Max. 467, 469; 2 Kent 324; 5 Co. 113; 10 Pet. (U. S.) 161, 175, 9 L. Ed. 382.

Nemo potest contra recordum verificare per patriam. No one can verify by the country against a record. (The issue upon a record cannot be tried by a jury.) 2 Inst. 380.

Nemo potest esse dominus et hæres. No one can be both owner and heir. Hale, C. L. c. 7.

Nemo potest esse simul actor et judex. No one can be at the same time judge and suitor. Broom, Max. 117; 13 Q. B. 327; 17 id. 1; 15 C. B. 796.

Nemo potest esse tenens et dominus. No man can be at the same time tenant and landlord (of the same tenement). Gilbert, Ten. 152.

Nemo potest exuere patriam. No man can renounce his own country. 18 L. Q. R. 51.

Nemo potest facere per alium quod per se non potest. No one can do that by another which he cannot do by himself. Jenk. Cent. 237.

Nemo potest facere per obliquum quod non potest facere per directum. No one can do that indirectly which cannot be done directly. 1 Eden 512.

Nemo potest mutare consilium suum in alterius injuriam. No one can change his purpose to the injury of another. Dig. 50. 17. 75; Broom, Max. 34.

Nemo potest nisi quod de jure potest. No one is able to do a thing, unless he can do it lawfully. 67 III. App. 80.

Nemo potest sibi debere. No one can owe to himself. See Confusion Of Rights.

Nemo præsens nisi intelligat. One is not present unless he understands. See Presence.

Nemo præsumitur alienam posteritatem suæ prætulisse. No one is presumed to have preferred another’s posterity to his own. Wing. Max. 285.

Nemo præsumitur donare. No one is presumed to make a gift.

Nemo præsumitur esse immemor suæ æternæ salutatis, et maxime in articulo mortis. No man is presumed to be forgetful of his eternal welfare, and particularly at the point of death. 6 Co. 76.

Nemo præsumitur ludere in extremis. No one is presumed to trifle at the point of death.

Nemo præsumitur malus. No one is presumed to be bad.

Nemo prohibetur plures negotiationes sive artes exercere. No one is restrained from exercising several kinds of business or arts. 11 Co. 64.

Nemo prohibetur pluribus defensionibus uti. No one is forbidden to set up several defenses. Co. Litt. 304; Wing. Max. 479.

Nemo prudens punit ut præterita revocentur, sed ut futura præveniantur. No wise man punishes that things done may be revoked, but that future wrongs may be prevented. 3 Bulstr. 17.

Nemo punitur pro alieno delicto. No one is to be punished for the crime or wrong of another. Co. Litt. 145 b; Wing. Max. 336.

Nemo punitur sine injuria, facto, seu defalto. No one is punished unless for some wrong, act, or default. 2 Inst. 287.

Nemo qui condemnare potest, absolvere non potest. No one who may condemn is unable to acquit. Dig. 50. 17. 37.

Nemo sibi esse judex vel suis jus dicere debet. No man ought to be his own judge, or to administer justice in cases where his relations are concerned. 12 Co. 113; Cod. 3. 5. 1; Broom, Max. 116, 124.

Nemo sine actione experitur, et hoc non sine breve sive libello conventionali. No one goes to law without an action, and no one can bring an action without a writ or bill. Bract. 112.

Nemo tenetur ad impossibile. No one is bound to an impossibility. Jenk. Cent. 7; Broom, Max. 244.

Nemo tenetur armare adversarium contra se. No one is bound to arm his adversary against himself. Wing. Max. 666.

Nemo tenetur divinare. No one is bound to foretell. 4 Co. 28; 10 id. 55 a.

Nemo tenetur edere instrumenta contra se. No man is bound to produce writings against himself. Bell, Dict.

Nemo tenetur informare qui nescit sed quisquis scire quod informat. No one who is ignorant of a thing is bound to give information of it, but every one is bound to know that which he gives information of. Branch, Princ.; Lane 110.

Nemo tenetur jurare in suam turpitudinem. No one is bound to testify to his own baseness.

Nemo tenetur seipsum accusare. No one is bound to accuse himself. Wing. Max. 486; Broom, Max. 968, 970; 1 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 443; 14 M. & W. 286; 107 Mass. 181.

Nemo tenetur seipsum infortuniis et periculis exponere. No one is bound to expose himself to misfortune and dangers. Co. Litt. 253.

Nemo tenetur seipsum prodere. No one is bound to betray himself. 10 N. Y. 10; 7 How. Pr. (N. Y.) 57, 58; Broom, Max. 968.

Nemo videtur fraudare eos qui sciunt et consentiunt. No one is considered as deceiving those who know and consent. Dig. 20. 17. 145.

Nigrum nunquam excedere debet rubrum. The black should never go beyond the red (i. e. the text of a statute should never be read in a sense more comprehensive than the rubric, or title). Trayner, Max. 373.

Nihil aliud potest rex quam quod de jure potest. The king can do nothing but what he can do legally. 11 Co. 74.

Nihil consensui tam contrarium est quam vis atque metus. Nothing is so contrary to consent as force and fear. Dig. 50. 17. 116; Broom, Max. 278, n.

Nihil dat qui non habet. He gives nothing who has nothing.

Nihil de re accrescit ei qui nihil in re quando jus accresceret habet. Nothing accrues to him who, when the right accrues, has nothing in the subject-matter. Co. Litt. 188.

Nihil est enim liberale quod non idem justum. For there is nothing generous which is not at the same time just. 2 Kent 441, note a.

Nihil est magis rationi consentaneum quam eodem modo quodque dissolvere quo confiatum est. Nothing is more consonant to reason than that everything should be dissolved in the same way in which it was made. Shep. Touch. 323.

Nihil facit error nominis cum de corpore constat. An error in the name is nothing when there is certainty as to the thing. 11 Co. 21; 2 Kent 292; Bart. Max. 225.

Nihil habet forum ex scena. The court has nothing to do with what is not before it.

Nihil in lege intolerabilius est, eandem rem diverse jure censeri. Nothing in law is more intolerahle than that the same case should be subject (in different courts) to different views of the law. 4 Co. 93.

Nihil infra regnum subditos magis conservat in tranquilitate et concordia quam debita legum administratio. Nothing preserves in tranquillity and concord those who are subjected to the same government better than a due administration of the laws. 2 Inst. 158.

Nihil iniquius quam æquitatem nimis intendere. Nothing is more unjust than to extend equity too far. Halkers. 103.

Nihil magis justum est quam quod necessarium est. Nothing is more just than what is necessary. Dav. 12.

Nihil nequam est præsumendum. Nothing wicked is to be presumed. 2 P. Wms. 583.

Nihil perfectum est dum aliquid restat agendum. Nothing is perfect while something remains to be done. 9 Co. 9.

Nihil peti potest ante id tempus quo per rerum naturam persolvi possit. Nothing can be demanded before the time when, in the nature of things, it can be paid. Dig. 50. 17. 186.

Nihil possumus contra veritatem. We can do nothing against truth. Doct. & Stu. Dial. 2, c. 6.

Nihil præscribitur nisi quod possidetur. There is no prescription tor that which is not possessed. 5 B. & A. 277.

Nihil quod est contra rationem est licitum. Nothing against reason is lawful. Co. Litt. 97.

Nihil guod est inconveniens est licitum. Nothing inconvenient is lawful. 4 H. L. C. 145, 195; Broom Max. 186, 366.

Nihil simul inventum est et perfectum. Nothing is invented and perfected at the same moment. Co Litt. 230; 2 Bla. Com. 298, n.

Nihil tam conveniens est naturali æquitati quam unumquodque dissolvi eo ligamine quo ligatum est. Nothing is so consonant to natural equity as that each thing should be dissolved by the same means by which it was bound. 2 Inst. 360; Broom, Max. 877. See Shep. Touch. 323.

Nihil tam conveniens est naturali æquitati, quam voluntatem domini volentis rem suam in alium transferrer, ratam haberi. Nothing is more conformable to natural equity than to confirm the will of an owner who desires to transfer his property to another. Inst. 2. 1. 40; 1 Co. 100.

Nihil tam naturale est quam eo genere quidque dissolvere, quo colligatum est. Nothing is so natural as that an obligation should be dissolved by the same principles which were observed in  contracting it. Dig. 50. 17. 35. See 2 Inst. 359; Broom, Max. 887.

Nihil tam proprium imperio quam legibus vivere. Nothing is so becoming to authority as to live according to the law. Fleta, 1. 1, c. 17, § 11; 2 Inst. 63.

Nil agit exemplum litem quod lite resolvit. An example does no good which settles one question by another. 15 Wend. (N. Y.) 44, 49.

Nil facit error nominis si de corpore constat. An error in the name is immaterial if the thing itself is certain. Broom, Max. 634; 11 C. B. 406.

Nil sin prudenti fecit ratione vetustas. Antiquity did nothing without a good reason. Co. Litt. 65.

Nil temere novandum. Nothing should be rashly changed. Jenk. Cent. 163.

Nimia certitude certitudinem ipsam destruit. Too great certainty destroys certainty itself. Lofft 244.

Nimia subtilitas in jure reprobatur, et talis certitudo certitudinem confundit. Too great subtlety is disapproved of in law, and such certainty confounds certainty. Broom, Max. 187; 4 Co. 5.

Nimium altercando veritas amittitur. By too much altercation truth is lost. Hob. 344.

No man can hold the same land immediately of two several landlords. Co. Litt. 152.

No man is presumed to do anything against nature. 22 Vin. Abr, 154.

No man may be judge in his own cause.

No man shall set up his infamy as a defence. 2 W. Bla. 364.

No man shall take by deed but parties, unless in remainder.

No one can grant or convey what he does not own. 25 Barb. (N. Y.) 284, 301. See 23 N. Y. 252; 13 id. 121; 6 Du. (N. Y.) 232. And see Estoppel.

No one will be permitted to take the benefit under a will and at the same time defeat its provisions. 25 Wash. L. Rep. 50.

Nobiles magis plectuntur pecunia, plebes vera in corpore. The higher classes are more punished in money, but the lower in person. 3 Inst. 220.

Nobiles sunt qui arma gentilitia antecessorum suorum proferre possunt. The gentry are those who are able to produce armorial bearings derived by descent from their own ancestors. 2 Inst. 595.

Nobiliores et benigniores pæsumptiones in dubiis sunt præferendæ. When doubts arise, the more generous and benign presumptions are to be preferred. Reg. Jur. Civ.

Nomen est quasi rei notamen. A name is as it were the note of a thing. 11 Co. 20.

Nomen non sufficit si res non sit de jure aut de facto. A name does not suffice if the thing do not exist by law or by fact. 4 Co. 107.

Nomina si nescis perit cognitio rerum. If you know not the names of things, the knowledge of things themselves perishes. Co. Litt. 86.

Nomina sunt mutabilia, res autem immobiles. Names are mutable, but things immutable. 6 Co. 66.

Nomina sunt notas rerum. Names are the marks of things. 11 Co. 20.

Nomina sunt symbola rerum. Names are the symbols of things.

Non accipi detent verba in demonstrationem faltam, quæ competunt in limitationem veram. Words ought not to be accepted to import a false description, which may have effect by way of true limitation. Bacon, Max. Reg. 13; 2 Pars. Con. 62; Broom, Max. 642; Leake, Con. 191; 3 B. & Ad. 459; 4 Exch. 604; 3 Taunt. 147.

Non alio modo puniatur aliquis, quam secundum quod se habet condemnatio. A person may not be punished differently than according to what the sentence enjoins. 3 Inst. 217.

Non aliter a significatione verborum recedi oportet quam cum manifestum est aliud sensisse testatorem. We must never depart from the signification of words, unless it is evident that they are not conformable to the will of the testator. Dig. 32. 69. pr. ; Broom, Max. 568; 2 De G. M. & G. 313.

Non auditur perire volens. One who wishes to perish ought not to be heard. Best. Ev. § 385.

Non concedantur citationes priusquam exprimatur super qua re fieri decet citatio. Summonses or citations should not be granted before it is expressed upon what ground a citation ought to be issued. 12 Co. 47.

Non consentit qui errat. He who errs does not consent. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 581; Bract. 44.

Non dat qui non habet. He gives nothing who has nothing. Broom, Max. 467; 3 Cush. (Mass.) 369; 3 Gray (Mass.) 178.

Non debeo melioris conditionis esse, quam auctor meus a quo jus in me transit. I ought not to be in better condition than he to whose rights I succeed. Dig. 50. 17. 175. 1.

Non deberet alii nocere quod inter alios actum esset. No one ought to be injured by that which has taken place between other parties. Dig. 12. 2. 10.

Non debet actori licere, quod reo non permittitur. That which is not permitted to the defendant ought not to be to the plaintiff. Dig. 50. 17. 41.

Non debet adduci exceptio ejus rei cujus petitur dissolutio. A plea of the very matter of which the determination is sought ought not to be made. Bacon, Max. Reg. 2; Broom, Max. 166; 3 P. Wms. 317; 1 Ld. Raym. 57; 2 id. 1433.

Non debet alteri per alteruin iniqua conditio inferri. A burdensome condition ought not to be brought upon one man by the act of another. Dig. 50. 17. 74.

Non debet, cui plus licet, quod minus est non licere. He who is permitted to do the greater may with greater reason do the less. Dig. 50. 17. 21; Broom, Max. 176.

Non decet homines dedere causa non cognita. It is unbecoming to surrender men when no cause is shown. 3 Wheel. Cr. Cas. (N. Y.) 473, 482.

Non decipitur qui scit se decipi. He is not deceived who knows himself to be deceived. 5 Co. 60.

Non definitur in jure quid sit conatus. What an attempt is, is not defined in law. 6 Co. 43. See Attempt.

Non differunt quos concordant re, tametsi non in verbis iisdem. Those things which agree in substance, though not in the same words, do not differ. Jenk. Cent. 70.

Non dubitatur, etsi specialiter venditor evictionem non promiserit, re evicta, ex empto competere actionem. It is certain that although the vendor has not given, a special guarantee, an action ex empto lies against him, if the purchaser is evicted. Code, 8. 45. 6. But see Doct. & Stud. b. 2, c. 47; Broom, Max. 768.

Non efficit affectus nisi sequatur effectus. The intention amounts to nothing unless some effect follows. 1 Rolle 226.

Non est arctius vinculum inter homines quam jusjurandum. There is no stronger link among men than an oath. Jenk. Cent. 126.

Non est certandum de regulis juris. There is no disputing about rules of law.

Non est disputandum contra principia negantem. There is no disputing against a man denying principles. Co. Litt. 343.

Non est justum aliquem antenatum post mortem facere bastardum, qui toto tempore vitæ suæ pro legitimo habebatur. It is not just to make an elderborn a bastard after his death, who during his lifetime was accounted legitimate. Bart. Max. 4 ; 12 Co. 44.

Non est novum ut priores leges ad posteriores trahantur. It is not a new thing that prior statutes shall give place to later ones. Dig. 1. 3. 26; 1. 1. 4; Broom, Max. 28.

Non est recedendum a communi observantia. There should be no departure from a common observance. 2 Co. 74.

Non est regula quin fallat. There is no rule but what may fail. Off. Ex. 212.

Non est reus nisi mens sit rea. One is not guilty unless his intention be guilty. This maxim is much criticised. See actus non reum tacit, etc.; Mens Rea.

Non ex opinionibus singulorum, sed ex communi usu, nomina exaudiri debent. Names of things ought to be understood according to common usage, not according to the opinions of individuals. Dig. 33. 10. 7. 2.

Non exemplis sed legibus judicandum est. Not by the facts of the case, but by the law must judgment be made. Dig. 7. 45. 13. (called by Albericus Gentilis lex aurea).

Non facias malum ut inde veniat bonum. You are not to do evil that good may come of it. 11 Co. 74 a.

Non impedit clausula derogatoria, quo minus ab eadem potestate res dissolvantur a qua constituuntur. A derogatory clause does not prevent things from being dissolved by the same power by which they were originally made. Bacon, Max. Reg, 19; Broom, Max. 27; 5 Watts (Pa.) 155.

Non in legendo sed in intelligendo leges consistunt. The laws consist, not in being read, but in being understood. 8 Co. 167.

Non jus ex regula, sed regula ex jure. The law does not arise from the rule (or maxim), but the rule from the law. Fleta vi, 14; Trayner, Max. 384.

Non jus, sed seisina facit stipitem. Not right, but seisin, makes a stock (from which the inheritance must descend). Fleta, 1. 6, cc. 14, 2, § 2; Noy, Max., 9th ed. 72, n. (b); Broom, Max. 525; 2 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 209; 1 Steph. Com. 365, 368, 394; 4 Kent 388; 4 Scott N. H. 468.

Non licet quod dispendio licet. That which is permitted only at a loss is not permitted to be done. Co. Litt. 127.

Non nasci, et natum mori, paria sunt. Not to be born, and to be dead-born, are the same.

Non obligat lex nisi promulgata. A law is not obligatory unless it be promulgated.

Non observata forma, infertur adnullatio actus. When the form is not observed, it is inferred that the act is annulled. 12 Co. 7.

Non officit conatus nisi sequatur effectus. An attempt does not harm unless a consequence follow. 11 Co. 98.

Non omne damnum inducit injuriam. Not every loss produces an injury (i. e. gives a right of action). See 3 Bla. Com. 219; 1 Sm. L. C. 131; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2211.

Non omne quod licet honestum est. It is not everything which Is permitted that is honorable. Dig. 50. 17. 144; 4 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 121.

Non omnium quæ a majoribus nostris constituta sunt ratio reddi potest. A reason cannot always be given for the institutions of our ancestors. 4 Co. 78; Broom, Max. 157; Branch, Princ.

Non possessori incumbit necessitas probandi possessiones ad se pertinere. It is not incumbent on the possessor of property to prove his right to his possessions. Code, 4. 19. 2; Broom, Max. 714.

Non potest adduci exceptio ejusdem rei cujus petitur dissolutio. A plea of the same matter, the determination of which is sought by the action, cannot be brought forward. Bacon, Max. Reg. 2. (When an action is brought to annul a proceeding, the defendant cannot plead such proceeding in bar.) Broom, Max. 166; Wing. Max. 647; 3 P, Wms. 817.

Non potest probari quod probatum non relevat. That cannot be proved which proved is irrelevant. See 1 Exch. 91, 102.

Non potest quis sine brevi agere. No one can sue without a writ. Fleta, 1. 2, c. 13, § 4.

Non potest rex gratiam facere cum injuria et damno aliorum. The king cannot confer a favor which occasions injury and loss to others. 3 Inst. 236; Broom, Max. 63; Vaugh. 338; 2 B. & B. 874.

Non potest rex subditum renitentem nerare impositionibus. The king cannot load a subject with imposition against his consent. 2 Inst. 61.

Non potest videri desisse habere, qui nunquam habuit. He cannot be considered as having ceased to have a thing, who never had it. Dig. 50. 17. 208.

Non præstat impedimentum quod de jure non sortitur effectum. A thing which has no effect in law is not an impediment. Jenk. Cent. 162; Wing. Max. 727.

Non quod dictum est, sed quod factum est, inspicitur. Not what is said, but what is done, is to be regarded. Co. Litt. 36; 6 Bing. 310; 11 Cush. (Mass.) 536.

Non revert an quis assensum suum præfert verbis, an rebus ipsis et factos. It is immaterial whether a man gives his assent by words or by acts and deeds. 10 Co. 52.

Non revert quid ex æquipollentibus fiat. It matters not which of two equivalents happens. 5 Co. 122.

Non refert quid not sit judici, si notum sit judici, si notum non sit in forma judicii. It matters not what is known to the judge, if it is not known to him judicially. 3 Bulstr. 115. See Judicial Notice.

Non refert verbis an factis fit revocatio. it matters not whether a revocation be by words or by acts. Cro. Car. 49; Branch, Prince.

Non remota causa sed proxima spectatur. See Causa Proxima.

Non respondebit minor, nisi in causa dotis, et hoc pro favore doti. A minor shall not answer unless in a case of dower, and this in favour of dower. 4 Co. 71.

Non solent quæ abundant vitiare scripturas. Surplusage does not usually vitiate writings. Dig. 50. 17. 94; Broom, Max. 627, n.

Non solum quid licet, sed quid est conveniens considerandum, quia nihil quod inconveniens est licitum. Not only what is permitted, but what is convenient, is to be considered, because what is inconvenient is illegal. Co. Litt. 66 a.

Non sunt longa ubi nihil est quod demere possis. There is no prolixity where there is nothing that can be omitted. Vaugh. 138.

Non temere credere, est nervus sapientæ. Not to believe rashly is the nerve of wisdom. 5 Co. 114.

Non valet confirmatio, nisi ille, qui confirmat, sit in possessione rei vel juris unde fieri debet confirmatio; et eodem modo, nisi ille cui confirmatio fit sit in possessione. Confirmation is not valid unless he who confirms is either in possession of the thing itself, or of the right of which confirmation is to be made, and, in like manner, unless he to whom confirmation is made is in possession. Co. Litt. 295.

Non valet donatio nisi subsequatur traditio. A gift is not valid unless accompanied by possession. Bract. 39 b.

Non valet exceptio ejusdem rei cujus petitur dissolutio. A plea of that of which the determination is sought is not valid. 2 Eden 134.

Non valet impedimentum quod de jure non sortitur effectum. An impediment is of no avail which by law has no effect. 4 Co. 31 a.

Non verbis sed ipsis rebus, leges imponimus. Not upon words, but upon things themselves, do we impose law. Cods 6. 43. 2.

Non videntur qui errant consentire. He who errs is not considered as consenting. Dig. 60. 17. 116; Broom, Max. 262; 2 Kent 477; 6 Allen (Mass.) 643.

Non videtur consensum retinuisse si quis ex præscripto minantis aliquod immutavit. He does not appear to have retained his consent, who has changed anything at the command of a party threatening. Bacon, Max. Reg. 22; Broom, Max. 278.

Non videtur perfecte cujusque id esse, quod ex casu auferri potest. That does not truly belong to any one which can be taken from him upon occasion. Dig. 50. 17. 159.

Non videtur quisquam id capere, quod ei necesse est alio restituere. One is not considered as acquiring property in a thing which he is bound to restore. Dig. 50. 17. 51.

Non videtur vim facere, qui jure suo utitur, et ordinaria actione experitur. He is not judged to use force who exercises his own right and procedds by ordinary action. Dig. 50. 17. 155. 1.

Noscitur a sociis. It is known from its associates. The meaning of a word may be ascertained by reference to the meaning of words associated with it. Broom, Max. 588; 1 B. & C. 644; 18 C. B. 102, 893; 5 M. & G. 639, 667; 12 Allen (Mass.) 77; 105 Mass. 433; 11 Barb. (N. Y.) 43, 63; 20 id. 644; 166 U. S. 1, 17 Sup. Ct. 495, 41 L. Ed. 897; 67 Lil. App. 665.

Noscitur ex socio, qui non cognoscitur ex se. He who is not known from himself may be known from his associate. F. Moore 817; 1 Ventr. 226; 3 Term 87; 9 East 267; 6 Taunt. 294; 1 B. & C. 644.

Notitia dicitur a noscendo; et notitia non debet claudicare. Notice is named from knowledge; and notice ought not to halt (i. e. be imperfect). 6 Co. 29.

Nova constitutio futuris formam imponere debet, non præteritis. A new enactment ought to impose form upon what is to come, not upon what is past. 2 Inst. 292; Broom, Max. 34, 37; T. Jones 108; 2 Show. 16; 6 M. & W. 285; 7 id. 536; 2 Mass. 122; 10 id. 439; 2 N. Y. 245; 7 Johns. (N. Y.) 503.

Novation non præsumitur. A novation is not presumed. Halkers. Max. 104; Bart. Max. 231.

Novitas non tam utilitate prodest quam novitate perturbat. Novelty benefits not so much by its utility as it disturbs by its novelty. Jenk. Cent. 167.

Novum judicium non dat novum jus, sed declarat antiquum. A new judgment does not make a new law, but declares the old. 10 Co. 42.

Noxa caput sequitur. The injury (i. e. liability to make good an injury caused by a slave) follows the head or person (i. e. attaches to his master). It extends to an animal or instrument. Holmes, Com. Law 7; Heineccius, Elem. Jur. Civ. 1. 4, t. 8, § 1231.

Nuda pactio obligationem non parit. A naked promise does not create an obligation. Dig. 2. 14. 7. 4; Code 4. 65. 27; Broom, Max. 746; Brisson, Nudus.

Nudo ratio et nuda pactio non ligant aliquem debitorem. Naked reason and naked promise do not bind any debtor. Fleta, 1. 2, c. 60, § 25.

Nudum pactum est ubi nulla subest causa præter conventionem; sed ubi subest causa, fit obligatio, et parit actionem. Nudum pactum is where there is no consideration besides the agreement; but when there is a consideration, an obligation is created and an action arises. Dig. 2. 14. 7. 4; Sharsw. Bla. Com. 445; Broom, Max. 745; 1 Pow. Gontr. 330; 3 Burr. 1670; Vin. Abr. Nudum Pactum (A). This is explained under Consideration.

Nudum pactum ex quo non oritur actio. Nudum pactum is that upon which no action arises. Code 2. 3. 10; 5. 14. 1; Broom, Max. 676; Bart Max. 231.

Nul ne doit s’enrichir aux depens des autres. No one ought to enrich himself at the expense of others.

Nul prendra advantage de son tort demesne. No one shall take advantage of his own wrong. Broom, Max. 290.

Nulla curia quæ recordum non habet potest imponere finem, neque aliquem mandare carceri; quia ista spectant tantummodo ad curias de recordo. No court which has not a record can impose a fine, or commit any person to prison; because those powers belong only to courts of record. 8 Co. 60.

Nulla emptio sine pretio esse potest. There can be no sale without a price. 4 Pick. (Mass.) 189.

Nulla impossibilia aut inhonesta sunt præsumenda; vera autem et honesta et possibilia. No impossible or dishonorable things are to be presumed; but things true, honorable, and possible. Co. Litt. 78.

Nulla pactione effici potest ne dolus præstetur. By no agreement can it be effected that there shall be no accountability for fraud. Dig. 2. 14. 27. 3; Broom, Max. 696, 118, n.; B M. & S. 466.

Nulle régle sans faute. There is no rule without a fault.

Nulle terre sans seigneur. No land without a lord. Guyot, Inst. Feed. c. 28.

Nulli enim res sua servit jure servitutis. No one can have a servitude over his own property. Dig. 8. 2. 26.

Nullius hominis auctoritas apud nos valere debet, ut meliora non sequeremur si quis attulerit. The authority of no man ought to avail with us, that we should not follow better [opinions] should any one present them. Co. Litt. 383 b.

Nullum crimen majus est inobedientia. No crime is greater than disobedience. Jenk. Cent. 77.

Nullum exemplum est idem omnibus. No example is the same for all purposes. Co. Litt. 212 a.

Nullum iniquum est præsumendum in jure. Nothing unjust is to be presumed in law. 4 Co. 72.

Nullum matrimonium, ibi nulla dos. No marriage, no dower. 4 Barb. (N. Y.) 192.

Nullum simile est idem. Nothing which is like another is the same, i. e. no likeness is exact identity. Story, Partn. 90; Co. Litt. 3 a; 2 Bla. Com. 162; 6 Binn. (Pa.) 506.

Nullum simile quatuor pedibus currit. No simile runs upon four feet (or, as ordinarily expressed, “on all fours”). Co. Litt. 3 a; Eunomus, Dial. 2, p. 155; 6 Binn. (Pa.) 506.

Nullum tempus occurrit regi. Lapse of time does not bar the right of the crown. 2 Inst. 273; 1 Sharsw. Bla; Com. 247; Broom, Max. 65; Hob. 347; 2 Steph. Com. 504; 1 Mass. 356; 18 Johns. (N. Y.) 227; 10 Barb. (N. Y.) 139; 13 Am. L. Reg. 465.

Nullum tempus occurrit reipublicæ. Lapse of time does not bar the commonwealth. 11 Gratt. (Va.) 572; 16 Tex. 305; 19 Mo. 567.

Nullus commodum capere potest de injuria sua propria. No one shall take advantage of his own wrong. Co. Litt. 148 b; Broom, Max. 279; 4 Bingh. H. c. 395; 4 B. & A. 409; 10 M. & W. 309; 11 id. 680; 12 Gray (Mass.) 493.

Nullus debet agere de dolo, ubi alia actio subest. Where another form of action is given, no one ought to sue in the action de dolo. 7 Co. 92.

Nullus dicitur accessorius post feloniam sed ille qui novit principalem feloniam fecisse, et ilium, receptavit et comfortavit. No one is called an accessory after the fact but he who knew the principal to have committed a felony, and received and comforted him. 3 Inst. 138.

Nullus dicitur felo principalis nisi actor, aut qui præsens est, abettans aut auxilians actorem ad feloniam faciendam. No one is called a principal felon except the party actually committing the felony, or the party present aiding and abetting in its commission. 3 Inst. 138.

Nullus idoneus testis in re sua intelligitur. No one is understood to be a competent witness in his own cause. Dig. 22. 5. 10.

Nullus jus alienum forisfacere potest. No man can forfeit another’s right. Fleta, 1. 1, c. 28, § 11.

Nullus recedat e curia cancellaria sine remedio. No one ought to depart out of the court of chancery without a remedy. Bisp. Eq. 8; Year B. 4 Hen. VII. 4.

Nullus videtur dolo facere qui suo jure utitur. No man is to be esteemed a wrong-doer who avails himself of his legal right. Dig. 50. 17. 55; Broom, Max. 130; 14 Wend. (N. Y.) 399, 492. See [1898] Ch. 1.

Nunquam crescit ex post facto præteriti delicti æstimatio. The quality of a past offence is never aggravated by that which happens subsequently. Dig. 60. 17. 138. 1; Bacon, Max. Reg. 8; Broom, Max. 42.

Nunquam fictio sine lege. There is no fiction without law.

Nunquam nimis dicitur quod nunquam satis dicitur. What is never sufficiently said is never said too much. Co. Litt. 375.

Nunquam pæscribitur in falso. There is never prescription in case of falsehood. Bell, Dict.

Nunquam res humanæ prospere succedunt ubi negliguntur divinæ. Human things never prosper when divine things are neglected. Co. Litt. 95; Wing. Max. 2.

Nuptias non concubitus sed consensus facit. Not cohabitation but consent makes the marriage. Dig. 50. 17. 30; Co. Litt. 33; Broom, Max. 506, n.

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Obedientia est legis essentia. Obedience is the essence of the law. 11 Co. 100.

Obtemperandum est consuetudini rationabili tanquam legi. A reasonable custom is to be obeyed like law. 4 Co. 38.

Occupantis fiunt derelicta. Things abandoned become the property of the (first) occupant.

Odiosa et inhonesta non sunt in lege præsumenda. Odious and dishonest acts are not presumed in law. Co. Litt. 78; 18 N. Y. 295.

Odiosa non præsumuntur. Odious things are not presumed. Burr. Sett. Cas. 190.

Officers may not examine the judicial acts of the court.

Officia judicialia non consedantur antequam vacent. Judicial offices ought not to be granted before they are vacant. 11 Co. 4.

Officia magistratus non debent esse venalia. The offices of magistrates ought not to be sold. Co. Litt. 234.

Officit conatus si effectus sequatur. The attempt becomes of consequence, if the effect follows. Jenk. Cent. 55.

Officium nemini debet esse damnosum. An office ought to be injurious to no one. Bell, Dict.

Omissio eorum quæ tacite insunt nihil operatur. The omission of those things which are silently implied is of no consequence. 2 Bulstr. 131.

Omne actum ab intentione agentis est judicandum. Every act is to be estimated by the intention of the doer. Branch, Princ.

Omne crimen ebrietas et incendit et detegit. Drunkenness inflames and reveals every crime. Co. Litt. 247; Broom, Max. 17; Whart. Cr. L. § 48.

Omne jus aut consensus fecit, aut necessitas constituit, aut firmavit consuetudo. All law has been derived from consent, established by necessity, or confirmed by custom. Dig. 1. 3. 40; Broom, Max. 690, n.

Omne magis dignum trahit ad se minus dignum, quamvis minus dignum. sit antiquius. Every worthier thing draws to it the less worthy, though the latter be more ancient. Co. Litt. 355.

Omne magnum exe,plum habet aliquid ex iniquo, quod publica utilitate compensatur. Every great example has some portion of evil, which is compensated by its public utility. Hob. 279.

Omne majus continet in se minus. The greater contains in itself the less. 5 Co. 115 a; Wing. Max. 206; Story, Ag. § 172; Broom, Max. 174; 15 Pick. (Mass.) 397; 1 Gray (Mass.) 336.

Omne majus dignum continet in se minus dignum. The more worthy contains in itself the less worthy. Co. Litt. 143.

Omne majus minus in se complectitur. Every greater embraces in itself the minor. Jenk. Cent. 208.

Omne principale trahit ad se accessorium. Every principal thing draws to itself the accessory. 17 Mass. 425; 1 Johns. (N. Y.) 580.

Omne quod solo inædificatur solo cedit. Every thing belongs to the soil which is built upon it. Dig. 41. 1. 7. 10; 47. 3. 1; Inst. 2. 1. 29; Broom, Max. 401; Fleta, 1. 3, c. 2, § 12.

Omne sacramentum debet esse de certa scientia. Every oath ought to be founded on certain knowledge. 4 Inst. 279.

Omne testamentum morte consummatum est. Every will is consummated by death. 3 Co. 29 b; 4 id. 61 b; 2 Bla. Com. 500; Shep. Touch. 401; Broom Max. 503.

Omnes actiones in mundo infra certa tempera habent limitationem. All actions in the world are limited within certain periods. Bract. 62.

Omnes licentiam habere his quæ pro se indulta sunt, renunciare. All have liberty to renounce those things which have been established in their favor. Code 2. 3. 29; 1. 3. 51; Broom, Max. 699.

Omnes prudentes ilia admittere solent quæ probantur iis qui in arte sua bene versati sunt. All prudent men are accustomed to admit those things which are approved by those who are well versed in the art. 7 Co. 19.

Omnia delicta in aperto leviora sunt. All crimes committed openly are considered lighter. 8 Co. 127.

Omnia præsumuntur contra spoliatorem. All things are presumed against a wrong-doer. Broom, Max. 938; 1 Greenl. Ev. § 37.

Omnia præsumuntur legitime facta donec probetur in contrarium. All things are presumed to be done legitimately until the contrary is proved. Co. Litt. 232; Broom, Max. 948; 69 Pa. 68.

Omnia præsumuntur rite et solenniter esse acta. All things are presumed to have been rightly and regularly done. Co. Litt. 232 b; Broom, Max. 165, 942; 12 C. p. 788; 3 BExch. 191; 6 id. 716.

Omnia præsumuntur rite et solenniter esse acta donec probetur in contrarium. All things are presumed to have been done regularly and with due formality until the contrary is proved. Broom, Max. 944; 5 B. & Ad. 650; 12 M. & W. 251.; 12 Wheat. (U. S.) 69, 6 L. Ed. 552; 6 Binn. (Pa.) 447.

Omnia quæ jure contrahuntur, contrario jure pereunt. Obligations contracted under a law are destroyed by a law to the contrary. Dig. 50. 17. 100.

Omnia quæ sunt uxoris sunt ipsius viri. All things which are the wife’s belong to the husband. Co. Litt. 112; 2 Kent 130, 143.

Omnia rite esse acta præsumuntur. All things are presumed to have been done in due form. Co. Litt. 6; Broom, Max. 944, n; 11 Cush. (Mass.) 441; 13 Allen (Mass.) 397; 108 Mass. 425; 2 Ohio St. 246; 6 id. 293.

Omnis conclusio boni et veri judicii sequitur ex bonis et veris præmissis et dictis juratorum. Every conclusion of a good and true judgment arises from good and true premises, and the verdicts of jurors. Co. Litt. 226.

Omnis consensus tollit errorem. Every consent removes error. 2 Inst. 123.

Omnis definitio in jure civili periculosa est, parum est enim ut non subverti possit. Every definition in the civil law is dangerous, for there is very little that cannot be overthrown. (There is no rule in the civil law which is not liable to some exception; and the least difference in the facts of the case renders its application useless.) Dig. 50. 17. 202; 2 Woodd. Lect. 196.

Omnis exceptio est ipsa quoque regula. An exception is in itself also a rule. This is the real meaning of the common aphorism: “The exception proves the rule.”

Omnis indemnatus pro innoxis legibus habetur. Every uncondemned person is held by the law as innocent.

Omnis innovatio plus novitate perturbat quam utilitate prodest. Every innovation disturbs more by its novelty than it benefits by its utility. 2 Bulstr. 338; 1 Salk. 20; Broom, Max. 147; 62 Pa. 381.

Omnis interpretatio si fieri potest ita flenda est in instrumentis, ut omnes contrarietates amoveantur. The interpretation of instruments is to be made, if they will admit of it, so that all contradictions may be removed. Jenk. Cent. 96.

Omnis interpretatio vel declarat, vel extendit, vel restringit. Every interpretation either declares, extends, or restrains.

Omnis nova constitutio futuris temporibus formam imponere debet, non prætoritis. Every new statute ought to set its stamp upon the future, not the past. Bract. 228; 2 Inst. 95.

Omnis persona est homo, sed non vicissim. Every person is a man, but not every man a person. Calvinus. Lex.

Omnis privatio præsupponit habitum. Every privation presupposes former enjoyment. Co. Litt. 339.

Omnis querela et omnis actio injuriarum limitata est infra certa tempora. Every plaint and every action for injuries is limited within certain times. Co. Litt. 114.

Omnis ratihabitio retrotrahitur et mandato priori æquiparatur. Every subsequent ratification has a retrospective effect, and is equivalent to a prior command. Co. Litt. 207 a; Story, Ag., 4th. ed. 102; Broom, Max. 757, 867; 8 Wheat. (U. S.) 363, 6 L. Ed. 631; 7 Exch. 726; 9 C. B. 632, 607; 5 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 266; 62 Me. 82. See Ratification; 9 Harv L. R. 60.

Omnis regula suas patitur exceptiones. Every rule of law is liable to its own exceptions.

Omnium contributione sarciatur quod pro omnibus datum est. What is given for all shall be compensated for by the contribution of all. 4 Bingh. 121; 2 Marsh. 309.

Omnium rerum quarum usus est, potest esse abusus, virtute solo excepta. There may be an abuse of everything of which there is a use, virtue only excepted. Dav. 79.

Once a fraud, always a fraud. 13 Vin. Abr. 539.

Once a mortgage, always a mortgage. 1 Hill. R. P. 378; Bisph. Bq. § 153; 7 Watts (Pa.) 375 ; 67 Pa. 104; 22 Ind. 62. See Mortgage.

Once a recompense, always a recompense. 19 Vin. Abr. 277.

Once quit and cleared, ever quit and cleared. Skene de Verb. Sign., iter ad fin.

One may not do an act to himself.

Opinio quæ favet testamento est tenenda. That opinion is to be followed which favors the will.

Oportet quod certa res deducatur in judicium. A thing, to be brought to judgment, must be certain or definite. Jenk. Cent. 84; Bract. 15, b.

Oportet quod certa sit res quæ venditur. A thing, to be sold, must be certain or definite. Bract. 61.

Optima enim est legis interpres consuetudo. Usage is the best interpreter of law, 2 Inst. 18; Broom, Max. 931.

Optima est lex, quæ minimum relinquit arbitrio judicis, optimus judex qui minimum sibi. That is the best law which confides as little as possible to the discretion of the judge; he is the best judge who takes least upon himself. Bacon, Aph. 46; Broom, Max. 84.

Optima statuti interpretatrix est (omnibus particulis ejusdem inspectis) ipsum statutum. The best interpretress of a statute is (all the separate parts being considered) the statute itself. 8 Co. 117; Wing. Max. 239, max. 68.

Optimum esse legem, quæ minimum relinquit arbitrio judicis; id quod certitudo ejus præstat. That law is the best which leaves the least discretion to the judge; and this is an advantage which results from its certainty. Bacon, Aph. 8.

Optimus interpres rerum usus. Usage is the best interpreter of things. 2 Inst. 282; Broom, Max. 917, 930.

Optimus interpretandi modus est sic leges interpretare ut leges legibus accordant. The best mode of interpreting laws is to make them accord. 8 Co. 169.

Optimus judex, qui minimum sibi. He is the best judge who relies as little as possible on his own discretion. Bacon, Aph. 46; Broom, Max. 84.

Optimus legum interpres consuetudo. Usage is the best interpreter of laws. 4 Inst. 75; 2 Pars. Con., 8th ed. 541; Broom, Max. 685.

Ordine placitandi servato, servatur et jus. The order of pleading being preserved, the law is preserved. Co. Litt. 303; Broom, Max. 188.

Origine propria neminem posse voluntate sua eximi manifestum est. It is manifest that no one by his own will can renounce his origin (put off or discharge his natural allegiance). Code 10. 34. 4. See 1 Bla. Com. c. 10; 20 Johns. (N. Y.) 313; 3 Pet. (U. S.) 122, 7 L. Ed. 617; 3 Pet. (U. S.) 246, 7 L. Ed. 666; Broom, Max. 77.

Origo rei inspici debet. The origin of a thing ought to be inquired into. 1 Co. 99.

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Pacta conventa quæ neque contra leges, neque dolo malo inita sunt, omni modo observanda sunt. Contracts which are not illegal, and do not originate in fraud, must in all respects be observed. Code 2. 3. 29; Broom, Max. 698, 732.

Pacta dant legem contractui. Agreements give the law to the contract. Halkers. Max. 118.

Pacta privata juri publico derogare non possunt. Private contracts cannot derogate from the public law. 7 Co. 23.

Pacta quæ contra leges constitutionesque vel contra bonos mores fiunt nullam vim habere, indubitati juris est. It is indubitable law that contracts against the laws, or good morals, have no force. Code 2. 3. 6; Broom, Max. 695.

Pacta quæ turpem causam continent non sunt observanda. Contracts founded upon an immoral consideration are not to be observed. Dig. 2. 14. 27. 4; 2 Pet. (U. S.) 539, 7 L. Ed. 508; Broom, Max. 732.

Pactis privatorum juri publico non derogatur. Private contracts do not derogate from public law. Broom, Max. 696; per Dr. Lushington, Arg. 4 CI. & F, 241; Arg. 3 id. 621.

Pacto aliquid licitum est, quod sine pacto non admittitur. By a contract something is permitted, which, without it, could not be admitted. Co. Litt. 166.

Par in parem imperium non habet. An equal has no power over an equal. Jenk. Cent. 174. Example: One of two judges of the same court cannot commit the other for contempt.

Parens est nomen generale ad omne genus cognationis. Parent is a general name for every kind of relationship. Co. Litt. 80; Littleton § 108; Mag. Cart. Joh. c. 50.

Parentum est liberos alere etiam nothos. It is the duty of parents to support their children even when illegitimate. Lofft 222.

Paria copulantur paribus. Similar things unite with similar.

Paribus sententiis reus absolvitur. When opinions are equal, a defendant is acquitted. 4 Inst. 64.

Parte quacumque integrante sublata, tollitur totum. An integral part being taken away, the whole is taken away. 8 Co. 41.

Partus ex legitimo thoro non certius noscit matrem quam genitorem suum. The offspring of a legitimate hed knows not his mother more certainly than his father, Fortescue, c. 42.

Partus sequitur venirem. The offspring follow the condition of the mother. Inst. 2. 1. 19. (This is the law in the case of slaves and animals; but with regard to freemen, children follow the condition of the father.) Broom, Max. 616, n.; 13 Mass. 661; 18 Pick. (Mass.) 222.

Parum est latam esse sententiam, nisi mandetur executioni. It is not enough that judgment should be given unless it be committed to execution. Co. Litt. 289 b.

Parum proficit scire quid fieri debet si non cognoscas quomodo sit facturum. It avails little to know what ought to be done. If you do not know how it is to be done. 2 Inst. 503.

Pater is est quem nuptiæ demonstrant. The father is he whom the marriage points out. Bart. Leg. Max. 151; 1 Bla. Com. 446; 7 Mart. N. s. (La.) 548, 553; Dig. 2. 4. 5; Broom, Max. 516. See Access.

Patria laboribus et expensis non debet fatigari. A jury ought not to be harassed by labors and expenses. Jenk. Cent. 6.

Patria potestas in pietate debet, non in atrocitate consistere. Paternal power should, consist in affection, not in atrocity.

Peccata contra naturam sunt gravissima. Offences against nature are the most serious. 3 Inst. 20.

Peccatum peccato addit qui culpæ quam facit patrocinium defensionis adjungit. He adds one offence to another, who, when he commits a crime, joins to it the protection of a defence. 5 Co. 49.

Pendente lite nihil innovetur. During a litigation nothing should be changed. Co. Litt. 344. See 20 How. (U. S.) 106, 16 L. Ed. 833; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. § 406; 2 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 441; 6 Barb. (N. Y.) 33; See Lis Pendens.

Per alluvionem id videtur adjici, quod ita paulatim adjicitur ut intelligere non possumus quantum quoque momento temporis adjiciatur. That is said to be added by alluvion which is so added little by little that we cannot tell how much is added at any one moment of time. Dig. 41. 1. 7. 1; Hale, de Jur. Mar. pars. 1, c. 4; Fleta, 1. 3, c. 2, § 6.

Per rationes pervenitur ad legitimam rationem. By reasoning we come to legal reason. Littleton § 386.

Per rerum naturam, factum negantis nulla probatio est. It is in the nature of things that he, who denies a fact is not bound to give proof.

Per varios actus, legem experientia facit. By various acts experience frames the law. 4 Inst. 50.

Perfectum est cui nihil deest secundum suæ perfectionis vel naturæ modum. That is perfect which wants nothing according to the measure of its perfection or nature. Hob. 151.

Periculosum est res novas et inusitatas inducere. It is dangerous to introduce new and unaccustomed things. Co. Litt. 379.

Periculum rei venditæ, nondum traditæ, est emptoris. The purchaser runs the risk of the loss of a thing sold, though not delivered. 2 Kent 498, 499; 4 B. & C. 481, 941.

Perjuri sunt qui servatis verbis juramenti decipiunt aures eorum qui accipiunt. They are perjured who, preserving the words of an oath, deceive the ears of those who receive it. 3 Inst. 166.

Perpetua lex est, nullam legem humanam ac positivam perpetuam esse; et clausula quæ abrogationem excludit ab initio non valet. It is a perpetual law that no human or positive law can be perpetual; and a clause in a law which precludes the power of abrogation is void ab initio. Bacon, Max. Reg. 19; Broom, Max. 27.

Perpetuities are odious in law and equity. 

Persona conjuncta æquiparatur interesse proprio. The interest of a personal connection is sometimes regarded in law as that of the individual himself. Bacon, Max. Reg. 18; Broom, Max. 533, 537.

Persona est homo cum statu quodam consideratus. A person is a man considered with reference to a certain status. Heineccius, Elem. Jur. Civ. 1 1, tit. 3, § 76:

Personæ vice fungitur municipium et decuria. Towns and boroughs act as if persons. 23 Wend. (N. Y.) 103, 144.

Personal things cannot be done by another. Finch, Law b. 1, c. 3, n. 14.

Personal things cannot be granted over. Finch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 15.

Personal things die with the person. Finch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 16.

Personalia personam sequuntur. Personal things follow the person. 10 Cush. (Mass.) 516.

Perspicua vera non sunt probanda. Plain truths need not be proved. Co. Litt. 16; 18 Pa. Dist. Rep. 638.

Pirata est hostis humani generis. A pirate is an enemy of the human race. 3 Inst. 113.

Placita negativa duo exitum non faciunt. Two negative pleas do not form an issue. Lofft 415,

Plena et celeris justitia fiat partibus. Let full and speedy justice be done to the parties. 4 Inst. 67.

Pluralis numerus est duobus contentus. The plural number is contained in two. 1 Rolle 476.

Pluralities are odious in law.

Plures cohæredes sunt quasi unum corpus, propter unitatem juris quod habent. Several co-heirs are as one body, by reason of the unity of right which they possess. Co. Litt. 163.

Plures participes sunt quasi unum corpus, in eo quod unum jus habent. Several part-owners are as one body, by reason of the unity of their rights Co. Litt. 164. .

Plus exempla quam peccata nocent. Examples hurt more than offences.

Plus peccat auctor quam actor. The instigator of a crime is worse than he who perpetrates it. 5 Co. 99.

Plus valet unus oculatus testis, quam auriti decem. One eye-witness is better than ten ear-witnesses. 4 Inst. 279.

Plus vident oculi quam oculus. Several eyes see more than one. 4. Inst. 160.

Pæna ad paucos, metus ad omnes. Punishment to few, dread or fear to all.

Pæna ad paucos, metus ad omnes perveniat. If punishment be inflicted on a few, a dread comes to all.

Pæna ex delicto defuncti hæres teneri non debet. The heir ought not to be bound in a penalty inflicted for the crime of the ancestor. 2 Inst. 198

Pæna non potest, culpa perennis erit. Punishment cannot be, crime will be, perpetual. 21 Vin. Abr. 271.

Pæna tolli potest, culpa perennis erit. The punishment can be removed, but the crime remains. 1 Park. Cr. Rep. (N. Y.) 241. See Pardon.

Pæna potius molliendæ quam exasperandæ sunt. Punishments should rather be softened than aggravated. 3 Inst. 220.

Pænæ sint restringendæ. Punishments should be restrained. Jenk. Cent. 29.

Pænæ suos tenere debet actores et non alios. Punishment ought to be inflicted upon the guilty, and not upon others. Bract. 380 b; Fleta, I. 1, c. 38, § 12; 1. 4, c. 17, § 17.

Politæ legibus non leges politiis adaptandæ. Politics are to be adapted to the laws, and not the laws to politics. Hob. 154.

Ponderantur testes, non numerantur. Witnesses are weighed, not counted. 1 Stark. Bv. 554; Best, Bt. 428, § 389;. 14 Wend. (N. Y.) 105, 109.

Posito una oppositorum negatur alterum. One of two opposite positions being affirmed, the other is denied. 3 Rolle 422.

Possessio est quasi pedis positio. Possession is, as it were, the position of the foot. 3 Co. 42.

Possessio fratis de feodo simplici facit sororem esse hæredem. Possession of the brother in fee-simple makes the sister to be heir, 3 Co. 42; 2 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 227; Broom, Max. 532.

Possessio pacifica pour anns 60 tacit jus. Peaceable possession for sixty years gives a right. Jenk. Cent. 26.

Possession is a good title, where no better title appears. 20 Vin. Abr. 278.

Possession of the termor, possession of the reversioner.

Possessor has right against all men but him who has the very right. 

Possibility cannot be on a possibility. 

Posteriora derogant prioribus. Posterior things derogate from things prior. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 90.

Posthumus pro nato habetur. A posthumous child is considered as though born (at the parent’s death).

Postliminium fingit eum qui captus est in civitate semper fuisse. Postliminy feigns that he who has been captured has never left the state. Inst. 1. 12. 5; Dig. 49. 51.

Potentia debet sequi justitiam, non antecedere. Power ought to follow, not to precede, justice. 3 Bulstr. 199.

Potentia inutilis frustra est. Useless power is vain.

Potentia non est nisi ad bonum. Power is not conferred but for the public good.

Potest quis renunciare pro se et suis, jus quod pro se introductum est. A man may relinquish, for himself and those claiming under him, a right which was introduced for his own benefit. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 83.

Potestas stricte interpretatur. Power should be strictly interpreted. Jenk. Cent. 17.

Potestas suprema seipsum dissolvere potest, ligare non potest. Supreme power can dissolve, but cannot bind Itself. Bacon, Max. Heg. 19.

Potior est conditio defendentis. Better is the condition of the defendant (than that of the plaintiff). Broom, Max. 740; Cowp. 343; 15 Pet. (U. S.) 471, 10 L. Ed. 800; 21 Pick. (Mass.) 289; 22 id. 186, 187.

Potior est conditio possidentis. Better Is the condition of the possessor. Broom, Max. 216, n. 719; 6 Mass. 84; 21 Pick. (Mass.) 140.

Prædium servit prædio. Land is under servitude to land. (i. e. Servitudes are not personal rights, but attach to the dominant tenement.) Trayner, Max. 455.

Præpropera consilia raro sunt prospera. Hasty counsels are seldom prosperous. 4 Inst. 67.

Præscriptio est titulus ex usu et tempore substantiam capiens ab auctoritate legis. Prescription is a title by authority of law, deriving its force from use and tinme. Co. Litt. 113.

Præscriptio et executio non pertinent ad valorem contractus, sed ad tempus et modum actionis instituendæ. Prescription and execution do not affect the validity of the contract, but the time and manner of bringing an action. 3 Mass. 84.

Præsentare nihil aliud est quam pæsto dare seu offere. To present is no more than to give or offer on the spot. Co. Litt. 120.

Præsentia corporis tollit errorem nominis, et veritas nominis tollit errorem demonstrationis. The presence of the body cures the error in the name; the truth of the name cures an error in the description. Bacon, Max. Reg. 25; Broom, Max. 637; 6 Co. 66; 3 B. & Ad. 640; 6 Term 675; 11 C. B 996; 1 H. L. C. 792; 3 De G. M. & G. 140; Hare, Contr. 471.

Præstat cautela quam medela. Prevention is better than cure. Co. Litt. 304.

Præsumatur pro justitia sententiæ. The Justice of a sentence should be presumed. Best, Ev. Int. 42; Mascardus, de prob. conc. 1237, n. 2.

Præsumitur pro legitimatione. There is a presumption in favor of legitimacy. 5 Co. 98 6; 1 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 457.

Præsumptio ex eo quod plerumque fit. Presumptions arise from what generally happens. 22 Wend. (N. Y.) 425, 475.

Præsumptio violenta, plena probatio. Violent presumption is full proof.

Præsumptio violenta valet in lege. Strong presumption avails in law. Jenk. Cent. 68.

Præsumptiones sunt conjecturæ ex signo verisimili ad probandum assumptæ. Presumptions are conjectures from probable proof, assumed for purposes of evidence. J. Voet. ad. Pand. 1. 22, tit. 3, n. 14.

Prætextu liciti non debet admitti illicitum. Under pretext of legality, what is illegal ought not to be admitted. 10 Co. 88.

Praxis judicum est interpres legum. The practice of the judges is the interpreter of the laws. Hob. 96; Branch, Princ.

Precedents have as much law as justice. 

Precedents that pass sub-silentio are of little or no authority. 16 Vin. Abr. 499.

Pretium succedit in locum rei. The price stands in the place of the thing sold. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 939; 2 Bulstr. 312.

Previous intentions are judged by subsequent acts. 4 Denio (N. Y.) 319.

Primo pars æquitatis æqualitas. The radical element of equity is equality.

Primo executienda est verbi vis, ne sermonis vitio obstruatur oratio, sive lex sine argumentis. The force of a word is to be first examined, lest by the fault of diction the sentence be destroyed or the law be without arguments. Co. Litt. 68.

Princeps et respublica ex justa causa possunt rem meam auferre. The king and the commonwealth for a just cause can take away my property. 12 Co. 13.

Princeps legibus solutus est. The emperor is free from laws. Dig. 1. 3. 31; Halifax, Anal. prev. vi, vii, note.

Principalis debet semper excuti antequam perveniatur ad fideijussores. The principal should always be exhausted before coming upon the sureties: 2 Inst. 19.

Principia probant, non probantur. Principles prove, they are not proved. 3 Co. 40. See Principles.

Principiis obsta. Oppose beginnings. Branch, Princ.

Principiorum non est ratio. There is no reasoning of principles. 2 Bulstr. 239. See Principles.

Principium est potissima pars cujusque rei. The beginning is the most powerful part of a thing. 10 Co. 49.

Prior tempore, potior jure. He who is first in time is preferred in right. Co. Litt. 14 a; Broom, Max. 354; 2 P. Wms. 491; 1 Term 733; 9 Wheat. (U. S.) 24. 6 L. Ed. 23; 15 Atl. (Pa.) 730.

Privatio præsupponit habitum. A deprivation presupposes a possession. 2 Rolle 419.

Privatis pactionibas non dubium est non lædi jus cæterorum. There is no doubt that the rights of others cannot be prejudiced by private agreements. Dig. 2. 15. 3. pr.; Broom, Max. 697.

Privatorum, conventio juri publico non derogat. Private agreements cannot derogate from public , law. Dig. 50. 17. 46. 1 ; Broom. Max. 695.

Privatum commodum publico cedit. Private yields to public good. Jenk. Cent. 273.

Privatum incommodum publico bono pensatur. Private inconvenience is made up for by public good. Broom, Max. 7.

Privilegium est beneflcium personale et extinguitur cum persona. A privilege is a personal benefit and dies with the person. 3 Bulstr. 8.

Privilegium est quasi privata lex. A privilege is, as it were, a private law. 2 Bulstr. 189.

Privilegium non valet contra republicam. A privilege avails not against the commonwealth. Bacon, Max. 25; Broom, Max. 18; Noy, Max., 9th ed. 34.

Pro possessione præsumitur de jure. From possession arises a presumption of law. See Possession.

Pro possessore habetur qui dolo injuriave desiit possidere. He is esteemed a possessor whose possession has been disturbed by fraud or injury. Off. Ex. 166.

Probandi necessitas incumbit illi qui agit. The necessity of proving lies with him who sues. Inst. 2. 20. 4.

Probationes debent esse evidentes, (id est) perspicuæ et faciles intelligi. Proofs ought to be made evident, (that is) clear and easy to be understood. Co. Litt. 283

Probatis extremis, præsumitur media. The extremes being proved, the intermediate proceedings are presumed. 1 Greenl. Ev. § 20.

Processus legis est gravis vexatio, executio legis coronat opus. The process of the law is a grievous vexation; the execution of the law crowns the work. Co. Litt. 289.

Prohibetur ne quis faciat in suo quod nocere possit alieno. It is prohibited to do on one’s own property that which may injure another’s. 9 Co. 59.

Proles sequitur sortem paternam. The offspring follows the condition of the father. 1 Sandf. (N. Y.) 583, 660.

Propinquior excludit propinquum; propinquus remotum; et remotus remotiorem. He who is nearer excludes him who is near; he who is near, him who is remote; he who is remote, him who is more remote, Co. Litt. 10.

Propositum indefinitum æquipollet universali. An indefinite proposition is equal to a general one.

Proprietas totius navis carina5 causam sequitur. The property of the whole ship follows the ownership of the keel. Dig. 6. 1. 61; 6 Pick. (Mass.) 220. (Provided it had not been constructed with the materials of another. Id.) 2 Kent 362.

Proprietates verborum, observandæ sunt. The proprieties (i. e. proper meanings) of words are to be observed. Jenk. Cent. 136.

Prosecutio legis est gravis vexatio; executio legis coronat opus. Litigation is vexatious, but an execution crowns the work. Co. Litt. 289 b.

Protectio trahit subjectionem, subjectio protectionem. Protection draws to It subjection; subjection, protection. Co. Litt. 65; Broom, Max. 78; 169 U. S. 649, 18 Sup. Ct. 456, 42 L. Ed. 890.

Proviso est providere præsentia et futura, non pæterita. A proviso is to provide for the present and the future, not the past 2 Co. 72; Vaugh. 279.

Prudenter agit qui præcepto legis obtemperat. He acts prudently who obeys the commands of the law. 6 Co. 49.

Pueri sunt de sanguine parentum, sed pater et mater non sunt de sanguine puerorum. Children are of the blood of their parents, but the father and mother are not of the blood of their children. 3 Co. 40.

Pupillus pati posse non intelligitur. A pupil is not considered able to do an act which would be prejudicial to him. Dig. 50. 17. 110. 2; 2 Kent 245.

Purchaser without notice is not obliged to discover to his own hurt. See 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4336.

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Quæ ab hostibus capiuntur, statim capientium fiunt. Things taken from public enemies immediately become the property of the captors. Inst. 2, 1, 17; Grotius, de jur. Bell. 1. 3, c. 6, § 12.

Quæ ab initio inutilis fuit institutio, ex post facto convalescere non potest. An institutiou void in the beginning cannot acquire validity from after-matter. Dig. 50. 17. 210.

Quæ ab initio non valent, ex post facto convalescere non possunt. Things invalid from the beginning cannot be made valid by subsequent act. Trayner, Max. 482.

Quæ accessionum locum obtinent, extinguuntur cum principales res peremptæ fuerint. When the principal is destroyed, those things which are accessory to it are also destroyed. Pothier, Obi. pt. 3, c. 6, art. 4; Dig. 33. 8. 2; Broom, Max. 496.

Quæ ad unum finem locuta sunt, non debent ad alium detorqueri. Words spoken to one end ought not to be perverted to another. 4 Rep. 14; 4 Co. 14.

Quæ cohærent personæ a persona separari nequeunt. Things which belong to the person ought not to be separated from the person. Jenk. Cent. 28.

Quæ communi legi derogant stricte interpretantur. Laws which derogate from the common law ought to be strictly construed. Jenk. Cent. 221.

Quæ contra rationem juris introducta sunt, non debent trahi in consequentiam. Things introduced contrary to the reason of the law ought not to be drawn into precedents. 12 Co. 76.

Quæ dubitationis causa tollendæ inseruntur communem legem non lædunt. Whatever is inserted for the purpose of removing doubt does not hurt or affect the common law. Co. Litt. 205.

Quæ dubitationis tollendæ causa contractibus inseruntur, jus commune non lædunt. Particular clauses inserted in agreements to avoid doubts and ambiguity do not prejudice the general law. Dig. 50. 17. 81.

Quæ in curia acta sunt rite agi præsumuntur. Whatever is done in court is presumed to be rightly done. 3 Bulstr. 43.

Quæ in partes dividi nequeunt solida a singulis præstantur. Things (i. e. services and rents) which cannot be divided into parts are rendered entire by each severally. 6 Co. 1.

Quæ in testamento ita sunt scripta ut intelligi non possint, perinde sunt ac si scripta non essent. Things which are so written in a will that they cannot be understood, are as if they had not been written. Dig. 50. 17. 73. 3.

Quæ incontinenti vel certo fiunt inesse videntur. Whatever things are done at once and certainly, appear part of the same transaction. Co. Litt. 236.

Quæ inter alios acta sunt nemini nocere debent, sed prodesse possunt. Transactions between strangers may benefit, but cannot injure, persons who are not parties to them. 6 Co. 1.

Quæ legi communi derogant non sunt trahenda in exemplum. Things derogatory to the common law are not to be drawn into precedent. Branch, Princ.

Quæ legi communi derogant stricte interpretantur. Those things which derogate from the common law are to be construed strictly. Jenk. Cent. 29.

Quæ mala sunt inchoata in principio vix bono peraguntur exitu. Things bad in the commencement seldom end well. 4 Co. 2.

Quæ non fieri debent, facta valent. Things which ought not to be done are held valid when they have been done. Trayner, Max. 484.

Quæ non valeant singula, juncta juvant. Things which may not avail singly, when united have an effect. 3 Bulstr. 132; Broom, Max. 588.

Quæ præter consuetudinem et morem majorum fiunt, neque placent, neque recta videntur. What is done contrary to the custom and usage of our ancestors, neither pleases nor appears right. 4 Co. 78.

Quæ propter necessitatem recepta sunt, non debent in argumentum trahi. Things which are tolerated on account of necessity ought not to be drawn into precedent. Dig. 50. 17. 162.

Quæ rerum natura prohibentur, nulla lege confirmata sunt. What is prohibited in the nature of things can be confirmed by no law. Finch, Law 74.

Quæ singula non prosunt, juncta juvant. Things which taken singly are of no avail afford help when taken together. Trayner, Max. 486.

Quæ sunt minoris culpæ sunt majoris infamiæ. Things which are of the smaller guilt are of the greater infamy. Co. Litt. 6.

Quæcunque intra rationem legis inveniuntur, intra legem ipsam esse judicantur. Whatever appears within the reason of the law, is considered within the law itself. 2 Inst. 689.

Quælibet concessio fortissime contra donatorem interpretanda est. Every grant is to be taken most strongly against the grantor. Co. Litt. 183 a; 1 Metc. 516.

Quælibet jurisdictio cancellos suos habet. Every jurisdiction has its bounds. Jenk. Cent. 139.

Quælibet pæna corporalis, quamvis minima, major est qualibet pæna pecuniaria. Every corporal punishment, although the very least, is greater than any pecuniary punishment. 3 Inst. 220.

Quæras de dubiis, legem bene discere si vis. Inquire into doubtful points if you wish to understand the law well. Littl. § 443.

Quære de dubiis, quia per rationes pervenitur ad legitimam rationem. Inquire into doubtful points, because by reasoning we arrive at legal reason. Littl. § 377.

Quærere dat sapere quæ sunt legitima vere. To investigate is the way to know what things are really lawful. Littl. § 443.

Qualitas quæ inesse debet, facile præsumitur. A quality which ought to form a part is easily presumed.

Quam longum debet esse rationabile tempus, non definitur in lege, sed pendet ex discretione justiciariorum. What is reasonable time the law does not define; it is left to the discretion of the judges. Co. Litt. 56. See 11 Co. 44.

Quam rationabilis debet esse finis, non definitur, sed omnibus circumstantiis inspectis pendet ex justiciariorum discretione. What a reasonable fine ought to be is not defined, but is left to the discretion of the judges, all the circumstances being considered. 11 Co. 44.

Quamvis aliquid per se non sit malum, tamen si sit mali exempli, non est faciendum. Although in itself a thing may not be bad, yet if it holds out a bad example it is not to be done. 2 Inst. 564.

Quamvis lex generaliter loquitur, restringenda tamen est, ut cessante ratione et ipsa cessat. Although the law speaks generally, it is to be restrained, since when the reason on which it is founded fails, it fails. 4 Inst. 330.

Quando aliquid conceditur, conceditur id sine quo illud fieri non possit. When anything is granted, that also is granted without which it cannot be of effect. 9 Barb. (N. Y.) 516; 10 id. 354.

Quando aliquid mandatur, mandatur et omne per quod pervenitur ad illud. When anything is commanded, everything by which it can be accomplished is also commanded. 5 Co. 116. See 7 C. B. 886; 14 id. 107; 6 Exch. 886, 889; 10 id. 449; 2 E. & B. 301; Broom, Max. 485; Bish. Writ. L. § 137.

Quando aliquid per se non sit malum, tamen si sit mali exempli, non est faciendum. When anything by itself is not evil, and yet may be an example for evil, it is not to be done. 2 Inst. 564.

Quando aliquid prohibetur ex directo, prohibetur et per obliquum. When anything is prohibited directly, it is also prohibited indirectly. Co. Litt. 223.

Quando aliquid prohibetur, prohibetur omne per quod devenitur ad illud. When anything is prohibited, everything by which it is reached is prohibited. 2 Inst. 48; Broom, Max. 432, 489; Wing. Mix; 618. See 7 CI. & F. 609, 646; 4 B. & C. 187; 2 Term 251; 8 id. 301, 416; 15 M. & W. 7; 11 Wend. (N. Y.) 329.

Quando aliquis aliquid concedit, concedere videtur et id sine quo res uti non potest. When a person grants a thing, he is supposed to grant that also without which the thing cannot be used. 3 Kent 421.

Quando charta continet generalem clausulam, posteaque descendit ad verba specialia quæ clausulæ generali sunt consentanea, interpretanda est charta secundum verba specialia. When a deed contains a general clause, and afterwards descends to special words, consistent with the general clause, the deed is to be construed according to the special words. 8 Co. 154.

Quando de una et eadem re, duo onerabiles existunt, unus, pro insufficientia alterius, de integro onerabitur. When two persons are liable concerning one and the same thing, if one makes default the other must bear the whole. 2 Inst. 277.

Quando dispositio referri potest ad duas res, ita quod secundum relationem unam vitiatur et secundum alteram utilis sit, tum facienda est relatio ad illam ut valeat dispositio. When a disposition may be made to refer to two things, so that according to one reference it would be vitiated and by the other it would be made effectual, such a reference must be made that the disposition shall have effect. 6 Co. 76 b.

Quando diversi desiderantur actus ad aliquem statum perficiendum, plus respicit lex actum originalem. When different acts are required to the formation of an estate, the law chiefly regards the original act. 10 Co. 49.

Quando duo jura concurrunt in una persona, æquum est ac si essent in diversis. When two rights concur in one person, it is the same as if they were in two separate persons. 4 Co. 118; Broom, Max. 531.

Quando jus domini regis et subditi concurrunt, jus regis præferri debet. When the right of the sovereign and of the subject concur, the right o£ the sovereign ought to be preferred. Co. Litt. 30 b; Broom, Max. 69.

Quando lex aliquid alicui concedit, concedere videtur id sine quo res ipsa esse non potest. When the law gives anything, it gives the means of obtaining it. 5 Co. 47; 3 Kent 421.

Quando lex aliquid alicui concedit, conceditur et id sine quo res ipsa esse non potest. When the law grants a thing to any one, it grants that also without which the thing itself cannot exist. Broom, Max. 486; 15 Barb. (N. Y.) 153, 160.

Quando lex aliquid alicui concedit, omnia incidentia tacite conceduntur. When the law gives anything, it gives tacitly what is incident to it. 2 Inst. 326; Hob. 234.

Quando lex est specialis, ratio autem generalis, generaliter lex est intelligenda. When the law is special, but its reason is general, the law is to be understood generally. 2 Inst. 83; 10 Co. 101.

Quando licit id quod majus, videtur licere id quod minus. When the greater is allowed, the less seems to be allowed also. Shep. Touch. 429.

Quando plus fit quam. fieri debet, videtur etiam illud fieri quod faciendum est. When more is done than ought to be done, that at least shall be considered as performed which should have been performed (as, if a man, having a power to make a lease for ten years, make one for twenty years, it shall be void only for the surplus). Broom, Max. 177; 5 Co. 115; 8 id. 85 a.

Quando quod ago non valet ut ago, valeat quantum valere potest. When that which I do does not have effect as I do it, let it have as much effect as it can. 16 Johns. (N. Y.) 172; 3 Barb, Ch. (N. Y.) 242.

Quando res non valet ut ago, valeat quantum valere potest. When the thing is of no force as I do it, it shall have as much as it can have. Cowp. 600; Broom, Max. 543; 2 Sm. L. C. 294; 6. East 105; 1 H. Bla. 614; 78 Pa. 219.

Quando verba et mens congruunt, non est interpretationi locus. When the words and the mind agree, there is no place for interpretation.

Quando verba statuti sunt specialia, ratio autem generalis, generalitor statutum est intelligendum. When the words of a statute are special, but the reason or object of it general, the statute is to be construed generally. 10 Co. 101 b.

Quemadmodum ad quæstionem facti non respondent judices, ita ad quæstionem juris non respondent juratores. In the same manner that judges do not answer to questions of fact, so jurors do not answer to questions of law. Co. Litt. 295.

Qui accusat integræ famæ et non criminosus. Let him who accuses be of clear lame, and not criminal. 3 Inst. 26.

Qui acquirit sibi acqurit hæredibus. He who acquires lor himself acquires for his heirs. Trayner, Max. 496.

Qui adimit medium dirimit finem. He who takes away the means destroys the end. Co. Litt. 161.

Qui aliquid statuerit parte inaudita altera, æquum licet dixerit, haud æquum fecerit. He who decides anything, one party being unheard, though he should decide right, does wrong. 6 Co. 52; 4 Bla. Com. 483.

Qui alterius jure utitur, eodem jure uti debet. He who uses the right of another ought to use the same right. Pothier, Tr. De Change, pt. 1, c. 4, § 114; Broom, Max. 473.

Qui bene distinguit, bene docet. He who distinguishes well, teaches well. 2 Inst. 470.

Qui bene interrogat, bene docet. He who questions well teaches well. 2 Bulstr. 227.

Qui cadit a syllaba cadit a tota causa. He who fails in a syllable fails in his whole cause. Bract, fol. 211; Stat. Wales, 12 Edw. I.; 3 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 407.

Qui concedit aliquid, concedere videtur et id sine quo concessio est irrita, sine quo res ipsa esse non potuit. He who grants anything is considered as granting that without which his grant would be idle, without which the thing itself could not exist. 11 Co. 52; Jenk. Cent. 32. ‘

Qui confirmat nihil dat. He who confirms does not give. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2069.

Qui contemnit præceptum, contemniit præcipientem. He who contemns the  precept contemns the party giving it. 12 Co. 96.

Qui cum alio contrahit, vel est vel debet esse non ignarus conditionis ejus. He who contracts knows, or ought to know, the quality of the person with whom he contracts (otherwise he is hot excusable). Dig. 50. 17. 19; Story, Confl. § 76.

Qui dat finem, dat media ad finem necessaria. He who gives an end gives the means to that end. 3 Mass. 129.

Qui destruit medium,, destruit finem. He who destroys the means destroys the end. 11 Co. 51; Shep. Touch. 342; Co. Litt. 161 a.

Qui doit inheriter al père, doit inheriter al finz. He who ought to inherit from the father ought to inherit from the son. 2 Bla. Com. 250, 273; Broom, Max. 517.

Qui evertit causam, evertit causatum futurum. He who overthrows the cause overthrows its future effects. 10 Co. 51.

Qui ex damnato coitu nascuntur, inter liberos non computentur. They who are born of an illicit union should not be counted among .children. Co. Litt. 8. See Bract. 5; Broom, Max. 519.

Qui facit id quod plus est, facit id quod minus est, sed non convertitur. He who does that which is more does that which is less, but not vice versa. Bracton 207 b.

Qui facit per alium facit per se. He who acts through another acts himself (i. e. the acts of an agent are the acts of the principal). Broom, Max. .818; 1 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 429; Story, Ag. § 440; 7 M. & G. 32, 33; 16 M. & W. 26; 8 Scott n. r. 590; 6 CI. & F. 600; 9 id. 850; 10 Mass. 155; 11 Metc. (Mass.) 71; Bish. Writ. L. § 93; Webb. Poll. Torts 89. See Co. Litt. 258 a.

Qui habet jurisdictionem absolvendi, habet jurisdictionem ligandi. He who has jurisdiction to loosen has jurisdiction to bind. 12 Co. 59.

Qui hæret in litera, hæret in cortice. He who adheres to the letter adheres to the hark. Broom, Max. 685; Co. Litt. 289; 6 Co. 4 6; 11 id. 34 b; 12 East 372; 9 Pick. (Mass.) 317; 22 id. 657; 1 S. & R. (Pa.) 253; 33 N. W. (Minn.) 87.

Qui ignorat quantum solvere debeat, non potest improbus videre. He who does not know what he ought to pay does not want probity in not paying. Dig. 50. 17. 99.

Qui in jus dominiumve alterius succedit jure ejus uti debet. He who succeeds to the right or property of another ought to use his right (i. e. holds it subject to the same rights and liabilities as attached to it in the hands of the assignor). Dig. 50. 17. 177; Broom, Max. 473, 478.

Qui in utero est, pro jam nato habetur quoties de ejus commodo quæritur. He who is in the womb is considered as born, whenever his benefit is concerned. See 1 Bla. Com. 130.

Qui jure suo utitur, nemini facit injuriam. He who uses his legal rights harms no one. 8 Gray 424. See Broom, Max. 379.

Qui jussu judicis aliquod fecerit non videtur dolo malo fecisse, quia parere necesse est. He who does anything by command of a judge will not be supposed to have acted from an improper motive, because it was necessary to obey. 10 Co. 76; Dig. 50. 17. 167. 1; Broom, Max. 93.

Qui male agit, odit lucem. He who acts badly hates the light. 7 Co. 66.

Qui mandat ipse fecissi videtur. He who commands (a thing to be done) is held to have done it himself. Story, Bailm. § 147.

Qui melius probat, melius habet. He who proves most recovers most. 9 Vin. Abr. 235.

Qui nascitur sine legitimo matrimonio, matrem sequitur. He who is born out of lawful matrimony follows the condition of the mother.

Qui non cadunt in constantem virum, vani timores sunt æstimandi. Those are to be esteemed vain fears which do not affect a man of a firm mind. 7 Co. 27.

Qui non habet, ille non dat. Who has not, he gives not. Shep. Touch. 243; 4 Wend. (N. Y.) 619.

Qui non habet in ære luat in corpora, ne quis peccetur impune. He who cannot pay with his purse must suffer in his person, lest he who offends should go unpunished. 2 Inst. 173; 4 Bla. Com. 20.

Qui non habet potestatem alienandi habet necessitatem retinendi. He who has not the power of alienating is obliged to retain. Hob. 336.

Qui non improbat, approbat. He who does not disapprove, approves. 3 Inst. 7.

Qui non negat, fatetur. He who does not deny, admits. Trayner, Max. 503.

Qui non obstat quod obstare potest, facere videtur. He who does not prevent what he can, seems to commit the thing. 2 Inst. 146.

Qui non prohibet cum prohibere possit, jubet. He who does not forbid when he can forbid, commands. 1 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 430.

Qui non prohibet quod prohibere potest, assentire videtur. He who does not forbid what he can forbid, seems to assent. 2 Inst. 308; 8 Exch, 304.

Qui non propulsat injuriam quanda potest, infert. He who does not repel a wrong when he can, occasions it. Jenk. Cent. 271.

Qui obstruit aditum, destruit commodum. He who obstructs an entrance destroys a conveniency. Co. Litt. 161.

Qui omne dicit, nihil excludit. He who says all excludes nothing. 4 Inst. 81.

Qui parcit nocentibus innocentes punit. He who spares the guilty punishes the innocent. Jenk. Cent. 126.

Qui. peccat ebrius, luat sobrius. He who offends drunk must be punished when sober. Gary 133; Broom, Max. 17.

Qui per alium facit per seipsum facere videtur. He who does anything through another is considered as doing it himself. Co. Litt. 258; Broom, Max. 817.

Qui per fraudem agit, frustra agit. He who acts fraudulently acts in vain. 2 Rolle 17.

Qui potest et debet vetare, tacens jubet. He who can and ought to forbid and does not, commands. 1 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 244.

Qui primum peccat ille facit rixam. He who first offends causes the strife.

Qui prior est tempore, potior est jure. He who is prior in time is stronger in right. Broom, Max. 353; Co. Litt. 14 ; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. § 64 d; Story, Bailm. § 312; 100 Mass. 411; 3 East 93; 10 Watts (Pa.) 24; 24 Miss. 208; Tiedem. Eq. Jur. § 22.

Qui pro me aliquid facit, mihi fecisse videtur. He who does any benefit for me (to another) is considered as doing it to me. 2 Inst. 501.

Qui providet sibi, providet hæredibus. He who provides for himself provides for his heirs.

Qui rationem in omnibus quærunt, rationem subvertunt. He who seeks a reason for everything subverts reason. 2 Co. 75; Broom, Max. 157.

Qui sciens solvit indebitum donandi consilio id videtur fecisse. One who knowingly pays what is not due, is supposed to have done it with the intention of making a gift. 17 Mass. 388.

Qui semel actionem renunciaverit, amplius repetere non potest. He who renounces his action once cannot any more bring it. 8 Co. 59. See Retraxit.

Qui semel malus, semper præsumitur esse malus in codem genere. He who is once bad is presumed to be always so in the same degree. Cro. Car. 317; Best, Ev. 345.

Qui sentit commodum, sentire debet et onus. He who derives a benefit from a thing ought to bear the disadvantages attending it. 2 W. & M. 217; 1 Stor. Const. 78; Broom, Max. 706; 17 Pick. (Mass.) 530; 2 Binn. (Pa.) 308, 571.

Qui sentit onus, sentire debet et commodum. He who bears the burden ought also to derive the benefit. 1 Co. 99 a; Broom, Max. 712; 1 S. & R. (Pa.) 180; Francis, Max. 5.

Qui tacet consentire videtur. He who is silent appears to consent. Jenk. Cent. 32; Broom, Max. 138, 787. See Dig. 50. 17. 142, for a different form.

Qui tacet consentire videtur ubi tractatur de ejus commodo. He who is silent is considered as assenting, when his advantage is debated. 9 Mod. 38; 38 Fla. 169.

Qui tacet non utigue fatetur, sed tamen verum est eum non negare. He who is silent does not indeed confess, but yet it is true that he does not deny. Dig. 50. 17. 142.

Qui tardius solvit, minus solvit. He who pays tardily pays less than he ought. Jenk. Cent. 38.

Qui vult decipi, decipiatur. Let him who wishes to be deceived, be deceived. Broom, Max. 782, n.; 1 De G., M. & G. 687, 710; Shep. Touch. 56; 43 Cal. 110.

Quicquid acquiritur servo, acquiritur domino. Whatever is acquired by the servant is acquired for the master. 15 Vin. Abr. 327.

Quicquid demonstratæ rei additur satis demonstratæ frustra est. Whatever is added to the description of a thing already sufficiently described is of no effect. Dig. 33. 4. 1. 8; Broom, Max. 630.

Quicquid est contra normam recti est injuria. Whatever is against the rule of right is a wrong. 3 Bulstr. 313.

Quicquid in excessu actum est, lege prohibetur. Whatever is done in excess is prohibited by law. 2 Inst. 107.

Quicquid judicis auctoritati subjicitur, novitati non subjicitur. Whatever is subject to the authority of a judge is not subject to innovation. 4 Inst. 66.

Quicquid plantatur solo, solo cedit. Whatever is affixed to the soil belongs to it. Off. Ex. 145; 8 Cush. (Mass.) 189. See Ambl. 113; 3 Bast 51; Broom, Max. 401. It does not apply to fixtures as between landlord and tenant, or life tenant and remainderman; [1906] 1 Ch. 406; [1901] 1 Ch. 533. And see Fixtures.

Quicquid recipitur, recipitur secundum modum recipientis. Whatever is received is received according to the intention of the recipient. Broom, Max. 810; Halkers. Max. 149; 2 Bingh. n. c. 461; 2 B. & C. 72; 14 Sim. 622; 2 CI. & F. 681; 2 Cr. & J. 678; 14 East 239, 243 c.

Quicquid solvitur, solvitur secundum modum. solventis. Whatever is paid is to be applied according to the intention of the payer. Broom, Max. 810; 2 Ver’. 606. See Appropiation Of Payments.

Quid sit jus, et in quo consistit injuria, lcgis est definire. What constitutes right, and what injury, it is the business of the law to declare. Co. Litt. 158 b.

Quid turpi ex causa promissum est non valet. A promise arising out of immoral circumstances is invalid.

Quidquid enim sive dolo et culpa venditoris accidit in eo venditor securus est. For concerning anything which occurs without deceit and wrong on the part of the vendor, the vendor is secure. 4 Pick (Mass.) 198.

Quieta non movere. Not to unsettle things which are established. 28 Barb. (N. Y.) 9, 22.

Quilibet potest renunciare juri pro se inducto. Any one may renounce a right introduced for his own benefit. To this rule there are some exceptions. See Broom, Max. 699, 705; 1 Exch. 657; 31 L. J. Ch. 175; 9 Mass. 482; 3 Pick. (Mass.) 218; 12 Cush. (Mass.) 83; 6 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 566.

Quisquis est qui velit jurisconsultus haberi, continuet studium, velit a quocunque doceri. Whoever wishes to be held a jurisconsult, let him continually study, and desire to be taught by everybody.

Quo ligatur, eo dissolvitur. As a thing is bound, so it is unbound. 2 Rolle 21.

Quo modo quid constituitur eodem modo dissolvitur. In whatever mode a thing is constituted, in the same manner is dissolved. Jenk. Cent. 74.

Quocumque modo velit, quocumque modo possit. In any way he wishes, in any way he can. 14 Johns. (N. Y.) 484, 492.

Quod a quoque pænæ nomine exactum est id eidem, restituere nemo cogitur. That which has been exacted as a penalty no one is obliged to restore. Dig. 50. 17. 46.

Quod ab initio non valet, in tractu temporis non convalescet. What is not good in the beginning cannot be rendered good by time. Merlin, Rep. verb. Regie de Droit. (This, though true in general, is not universally so.) 4 Co. 26; Broom, Max. 178; 6 Pick. (Mass.) 27.

Quod ad jus naturale attinet, omnes homines æquales sunt. All men are equal as far as the natural law is concerned. Dig. 50. 17. 32.

Quod ædificatur in arca legata cedit legato. Whatever is built upon land given  by will passes with the gift of the land. Amos & F. Fixtures 246; Broom, Max. 424.

Quod alias bonum et justum est, si per vim vel fraudem petatur, malum et injustum efficitur. What is otherwise good and just, if sought by force or fraud, becomes bad and unjust. 3 Co. 78.

Quod alias non fuit licitum necessitas licitum facit. Necessity makes that lawful which otherwise were unlawful. Fleta, 1. 6, c. 23, § 14.

Quod approbo non reprobo. What I approve I do not disapprove. Broom, Max. 712.

Quod attinet ad jus civile, servi pro nullis habentur, non tamen et jure naturali, quia, quod ad jus naturale attinet, omnes homines æquali sunt. So far as the civil law is concerned, slaves are not reckoned as persons, but not so by natural law, for so far as regards natural law all men are equal. Dig. 50. 17. 32.

Quod constat clare, non debet verificari. What is clearly apparent need not be proved. 10 Mod. 150.

Quod constat curiæ opere testium non indiget. What appears to the court needs not the help of witnesses. 2 .Inst. 662.

Quod contra juris rationem receptum est, non est producendum ad consequentias. What has been admitted against the reason of the law, ought not to be drawn into precedents. Dig. 50. 17. 141; 12 Co. 75.

Quod contra legem fit, pro infecto habetur. What is done contrary to the law, is considered as not done. 4 Co. 31. (No one can derive any advantage from such an act.)

Quod datum est ecclesiæ, datum est Deo. What is given to the church is given to God. 2 Inst. 690.

Quod demonstrandi causa additur rei satis demonstratæ, frustra fit. What is added to a thing sufficiently palpable, for the purpose of demonstration, is vain. 10 Co. 113.

Quod dubitas, ne feceris. When you doubt about a thing, do not do it. 1 Hale, P. C. 310; Broom, Max. 328, n.

Quod enim semel aut bis existit, prætereunt legislatores. That which never happens but once or twice, legislators pass by. Dig. 1. 3. 17.

Quod est ex necessitate nunquam introducitur, nisi quando necessarium. What is introduced of necessity, is never introduced except when necessary. 2 Rolle 512.

Quod est inconveniens, aut contra rationem non permissum est in lege. What is inconvenient or contrary to reason, is not allowed in law. Co. Litt. 178.

Quod est necessarium est licitum. What is necessary is lawful. Jenk. Cent. 76.

Quod fieri debet facile præsumitur. That is easily presumed which ought to be done. Halkers. Max. 153; Broom, Max. 182, 297.

Quod fieri non debet, factum valet. What ought not to be done, when done, is valid. 5 Co. 38; 12 Mod. 438; 6 M. & W. 58; 9 id. 636.

Quod in jure scripto “jus” appellatur, id in lege Angliæ “rectum” esse dicitur. What in the civil law is called “jus,” in the law of England is said to be “rectum” (right). Co. Litt. 260; Fleta, 1. 6, c. 1, § 1.

Quod in minori valet, valebit in majori; et quod in majori non valet, nec valebit in minori. What avails in the less, will avail in the greater; and what will not avail in the greater, will not avail in the less. Co. Litt. 260.

Quod in uno similium valet, valebit in altera. What avails in one of two similar things, will avail in the other. Co. Litt. 191.

Quod inconsulto fecimus, consultius revocemus. What is done without consideration or reflection, upon better consideration we should revoke or undo. Jenk. Cent. 116.

Quod initio non valet, tractu temporis non valet. A thing void in the beginning does not become valid by lapse of time.

Quod initio vitiosum est non potest tractu temporis convalescere. Time cannot render valid an act void in its origin. Dig. 50. 17. 29; Broom. Max. 178.

Quod ipsis, qui contraxerunt, ohstat, et successoribus eorum obstabit. That which bars those who have contracted will bar their successors also. Dig. 50. 17. 103.

Quod jussu alterius solvitur pro eo est quasi ipsi solutum esset. That which is paid by the order of another is, so far as such person is concerned, as if it had been paid to himself. Dig. 60. 17. 180.

Quod meum est, sine facto sive defectu meo amitti seu in alium transferri non potest. That which is mine cannot be lost or transferred to another without mine own act or default. 8 Co. 92; Broom, Max. 465; 1 Prest. Abstr. 147, 318.

Quod meum est sine me auferri non potest. What is mine cannot be taken away without my consent. Jenk. Cent. 251. But see Eminent Domain.

Quod minus est in obligationem videtur deductum. That which is the less is held to be imported into the contract (e. g. A offers to hire B’s house at six hundred dollars, at the same time B offers to let it for five hundred dollars; the contract is for five hundred dollars). 1 Story, Contr. 481.

Quod naturalis ratio inter omnes homines constituit, vocatur jus gentium. That which natural reason has established among all men is called the law of nations. Dig. 1. 1. 9; Inst. 1. 2. 1; 1 Bla. Com. 43.

Quod necessarie intelligitur id non deest. What is necessarily understood is not wanting. 1 Bulstr. 71.

Quod necessitas cogit, defendit. What necessity forces, it justifies. Hale, P. C. 54.

Quod non apparet non est, et non apparet judicialiter ante judicium. What appears not does not exist, and nothing appears judicially before judgment. 2 Inst. 479; Broom, Max. 164; Jenk. Cent. 207; arg. 55 Pa. 57.

Quod non capit Christus, capit fiscus. What the church does not take, the treasury takes. Year B. 19 Hen. VI. 1.

Quod non habet principium non habet finem. What has no beginning has no end. Co. Litt. 345; Broom, Max. 180.

Quod non legitur, non creditur. What is not read is not believed. 4 Co. 304.

Quod non valet in principali, in accessorio seu consequenti non valebit; et quod non valet in magis propinquo, non valebit in magis remoto. What is not good as to things principal, will not be good as to accessories or consequences; and what is not of force as regards things near will not be of force as to things remote. 8 Co. 78.

Quod nullius esse potest, id ut alicujus fieret nulla obligatio valet efficere. No agreement can avail to make that the property of any one which cannot be acquired as property. Dig. 60. 17. 182.

Quod nullius est, est domini regis. That which belongs to nobody belongs to our lord the king. Fleta iii. 12; Broom, Max. 354; Bacon, Abr. Prerogative (B) ; 2 Bla. Com. 260.

Quod nullius est id ratione naturali occupanti conceditur. What belongs to no one, by natural reason belongs to the first occupant. 2 Inst. 2. 1. 12; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 491; Broom, Max. 353.

Quod nullum est, nullum producit effectum. That which is null produces no effect. Trayner, Max. 519.

Quod omnes tangit, ab omnibus debet supportari. That which concerns all ought to be supported by all. 3 How. St. Tr. 818, 1087.

Quod per me non possum, nec per alium. What I cannot do in person, I cannot do through the agency of another. 4 Co. 24 b; 11 id. 87 a.

Quod per recordum probatum, non debet esse negatum. What is proved by the record, ought not to be denied.

Quod populus postremum jussit, id jus ratum esto. What the people have last enacted, let that be the established law. 1 Bla. Com. 89; 12 Allen (Mass.) 434.

Quod principi placuit, legis habet vigarem; ut pote cum lege regia, quæ de imperio ejus lata est, populus ei et in eum omne suum imperium et potestatem conferat. The will of the emperor has the force of law; for, by the royal law which has been made concerning his authority, the people have conferred upon him all its sovereignty and power. Dig. 1. 4. 1; Inst. 1. 2. 1; Fleta, 1. 1, c. 17, § 7; Brac. 107; Selden, Diss, ad Flet. c. 3, § 2.

Quod prius est verius est; et quod prius est tempore potius est jure. What is first is truest; and what comes first in time is best in law. Co. Litt. 347.

Quod pro minore licitum est, et pro majore licitum est. What is lawful in the less is lawful in the greater. 8 Co. 43.

Quod pure debetur præsenti die debetur. That which is due unconditionally is due now. Trayner, Max. 519.

Quod quis ex culpa sua daminum sentit, non intelligitur damnum sentire. He who suffers a damage by his own fault is not held to suffer damage. Dig. 5o. 17. 203.

Quod quis sciens indebitum dedit hac mente, ut postea repeteret, repetere non potest. What one has paid knowing it not to be due, with the intention of recovering it back, he cannot recover back. Dig. 2. 6. 50.

Quod quisquis norit in hoc se exerceat. Let every one employ himself in what he knows. 11 Co. 10.

Quod remedio destituitur ipsa re valet si culpa absit. What is without a remedy is by that very fact valid if there be no fault. Bacon, Max. Reg. 9; 3 Bla. Com. 20; Broom, Max. 212.

Quod semel aut bis cxistit prætereunt legislatores. Legislators pass over what happens (only) once or twice. Dig. 1. 3. 6; Broom, Max. 46.

Quod semel meum est amplius meum esse non potest. What is once mine cannot be mine more completely. Co. Litt. 49 b; Shep. Touch. 212; Broom, Max. 465, n.

Quod semel placuit in electione, amplius displicere non potest. That which in making his election a man has once been pleased to choose, he cannot afterwards quarrel with. Co. Litt. 146; Broom, Max. 295.

Quod solo inædificatur solo cedit. Whatever is built on the soil is an accessory of the soil. Inst. 2. 1. 29; 16 Mass. 449; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1571.

Quod sub certa forma concessum vel reservatum est, non trahitur ad valorem, vel compensationem. That which is granted or reserved under a certain form, is not to be drawn into valuation or compensation. Bacon, Max. Reg. 4; Broom, Max. 464.

Quod subintelligitur non deest. What is understood is not wanting. 2 Ld. Raym. 832.

Quod tacite intelligitur deesse non videtur. What is tacitly understood does not appear to be wanting. 4 Co. 22.

Quod vanum et inutile est, lex non requirit. The law does not require what is vain and useless. Co. Litt. 319.

Quod vera contra rationem juris receptum est, non est producendum ad consequentias. But that which has been admitted contrary to the reason of the law, ought not to be drawn into precedents. Dig. 1. 3. 14; Broom, Max. 158.

Quodcunque aliquis ob tutelam corporis sui fecerit jure id fecisse videtur. Whatever one does in defense of his person, that he is considered to have done legally. 2 Inst. 590.

Quodque dissolvitur eodem modo quo ligatur. In the same manner that a thing is bound, it is unbound. 5 Rolle 39; Broom, Max. 881; 2 M. & G. 729.

Quorum prætextu nec auget nec minuit sententiam, sed tantum confirmat præmissa.Quorum prætextu” neither increases nor diminishes the meaning, but only confirms that which went before. Plowd. 52.

Quotiens dubia interpretatio libertatis est, secundum libertatem respondendum erit. Whenever there is a doubt between liberty and slavery, the decision must be in favor of liberty. Dig. 50. 17. 20.

Quotiens idem sermo duas sententias exprimit, ea potissimum accipiatur, quæ rei gerendæ aptior est. Whenever the same words express two meanings, that is to be taken which is the better fitted for carrying out the proposed end. Dig. 50. 17. 67.

Quoties in stipulationibus ambigua oratio est, commodissimum est id accipi quo res de quo agitur in tuto sit. Whenever in stipulations the expression is ambiguous, it is most proper to give it that interpretation by which the subject-matter may be in safety. Dig. 41. 1. 80; 50. 16. 219.

Quoties in verbis nulla est ambiguitas, ibi nulla expositio contra verba expressa fienda est. When there is no ambiguity in the words, then no exposition contrary to the words is to be made. Co. Litt. 147; Broom, Max. 619;

Quum de lucro duorum quæratur, melior est conditio possidentis. When the gain of one or two is in question, the condition of the possessor is the better. Dig. 50. 17. 126 n.

Quum in testamento ambigue aut etiam perperam, scriptum est, benigne interpretari et secundum id quod credibile est cogitatum, credendum est. When in a will an ambiguous or even an erroneous expression occurs, it should be construed liberally and in accordance with what is thought the probable meaning of the testator. Dig. 34. 5. 24; Broom, Max. 567. See Brisson, Perperam.

Quum principalis causa non consistit ne ea quidem quæ sequuntur locum, habent. When the principal cause does not hold its ground, neither do the accessories find place. Dig. 50. 17. 129. 1; Broom, Max. 496; 1 Pothier, Obi. 413.

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Ratihabitio mandate æquiparatur. Ratification is equal to a command. Dig. 46. 3. 12. 4; Broom, Max. 867; 20 Pick; (Mass.) 95. See Omnis ratihabitio, etc.

Ratio est formalis causa consuetudinis. Reason is the source and mould of custom.

Ratio est legis anima, mutata legis ratione mutatur et lex. Reason is the soul of the law; the reason of the law being changed, the law is also changed. 7 Co. 7.

Ratio et auctoritas duo clarissima mundi lumina. Reason and authority are the two brightest lights in the world. 4 Inst. 320;

Ratio in jure aequitas integra. Reason in law is perfect equity.

Ratio legis est anima legis. The reason of the law is the soul of the law. Jenk. Cent. 45.

Ratio non clauditur loco. Reason is not confined to any place.

Ratio potest allegari deficiente lege, sed vera et legalis et non apparens. Reason may be alleged when the law is defective, but it must be true and legal reason, and not merely apparent. Co. Litt. 191.

Re, verbis, scripto, consensu, traditione, junctura vestes sumere pacta solent. Compacts usually take their clothing from the thing itself, from words, from writings, from consent, from delivery. Plowd. 161.

Receditur a placitis juris potius quam injuriæ et delicta maneant impunita. Positive rules of law will be receded from rather than that crimes and wrongs should remain unpunished. Bacon, Max. Reg. 12; Broom, Max. 10. (This applies only to such maxims as are called placita juris; these will be dispensed with rather than crimes should go unpunished, quia salus populi suprema lex, because the public safety is the supreme law.)

Recorda sunt vestigia vetustatis et veritatis. Records are vestiges of antiquity and truth. 2 Rolle 296.

Recurrendum est ad extraordinarium quando non valet ordinarium. We must have recourse to what is extraordinary when what is ordinary fails.

Reddenda singula singulis. Let each be put in its proper place; that is, that the words should be taken distributively. 2 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 614; 3 Pa. Dist. Rep. 344; 12 Pick. (Mass.) 291; 18 id. 228.

Regula est, juris quidem ignorantiam cuique nocere, facti vero ignorantiam non nocere. The rule is, that ignorance of the law does not excuse, but that ignorance of a fact may excuse a party from the legal consequences of his conduct. Dig. 22. 6. 9; Broom, Max. 253. See Irvine, Civ. Law 74.

Regula pro lege, si deficit lex. In default of the law, the maxim rules.

Regulariter non valet pactum de re mea non alienanda. Regularly a contract not to alienate my property is not binding. Co. Litt. 223.

Rei turpis nullum mandatum. est. A mandate of an illegal thing is void. Dig. 17. 1. 6. 3.

Rcipublicæ interest voluntates defunctorum effectum, sortiri. It concerns the state that the wills of the dead should have their effect.

Relatio est fictio juris et intenta ad unum. Relation is a fiction of law, and intended for one thing. 3 Co. 28.

Relatio semper fiat ut valeat dispositio. Reference should always be bad in such a manner that a disposition in a will may avail. 6 Co. 76.

Relation never defeats collateral acts. 18 Vin. Abr. 292.

Relation shall never make good a void grant or devise of the party. 18 Vin. Abr. 292.

Relative words refer to the next antecedent, unless the sense be thereby impaired. Noy, Max. 4; Wing. Max.  19; Broom, Max. 606; Jenk. Cent. 180.

Relativorum cognito uno, cognoscitur et alterum. Of things relating to each other, one being known, the other is known. Cro. Jac. 539.

Religio sequitur patrem. The father’s religion is prima facie the infant’s religion. Religion will follow the father. [1902] 1 ch. 688.

Remainder can depend upon no estate but what beginneth at the same time the remainder doth.

Remainder must vest at the same instant that the particular estate determines.

Remainder to a person not of a capacity to take at the time of appointing it, is void. Plowd. 27.

Remedies for rights are ever favorably extended. 18 Vin. Abr. 521.

Remedies ought to be reciprocal.

Remissius imperanti melius paretur. A man commanding not too strictly is better obeyed. 3 Inst. 233.

Remoto impedimento, emergit actio. The impediment being removed, the action arises. 5 Co. 76; Wing. Max. 20.

Rent must be reserved to him from whom the state of the land moveth. Co. Litt. 143.

Repellitur a sacramento infamis. An infamous person is repelled or prevented from taking an oath. Co. Litt. 158; Bract. 185.

Repellitur exceptione cedendarum actionum. He is defeated by the plea that the actions have been assigned.

Reprobata pecunia liberat solventem. Money refused releases the debtor. 9 Co. 79. But this must be understood with a qualification. See Tender.

Reputatio est vulgaris opinio ubi non est veritas. Reputation is a common opinion where there is no certain knowledge. 4 Co. 107. But see Character.

Rerum ordo confunditur si unicuique jurisdictio non servatur. The order ot things is confounded if every one preserves not his jurisdiction. 4 Inst. Proem.

Rerum progressu ostendunt multa, quæ in initio præcaveri seu prævideri non possunt. In the course of events many mischiefs arise which at the beginning could not be guarded against or foreseen. 6 Co. 40.

Rerum suarum quilibet est moderator et arbiter. Every one is the manager and disposer of his own matters. Co. Litt. 223.

Res accendent lumina rebus. One thing throws light upon others. 4 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 149.

Res accessoria sequitur rem principalem. An accessory follows its principal. Broom, Max. 491. (For a definition of res accessorial see Mack. Civ. Law 155.)

Res denominator a principaliori parte. A thing is named from its principal part. 5 Co. 47.

Res est misera ubi jus est vagum et incertum. It is a miserable state of things where the law is vague and uncertain. 2 Salk. 512.

Res generalem habet significationem, quia tam corporea, quam incorporea, cujuscunque sunt generis naturæ sive speciei, comprehendit. The word things has a general signification, because it comprehends as well corporeal as incorporeal objects, of whatever sort, nature, or species. 3 lnst. 482; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 415.

Res inter alios acta alteri nocere non debet. Things done between strangers ought not to injure those who are not parties to them. Co. Litt. 132; Broom, Max. 954, 967; 11 Q. B. 1028; 67 N. H. 369; Freem. Judg. § 154.

Res inter alios judicatæ nullum aliis præjudicium faciunt. Matters adjudged in a cause do not prejudice those who were not parties to it. Dig. 44. 2. 1.

Res ipsa loquitur. See Res Ipsa Loquitur.

Res judicata facit ex albo nigrum, ex nigro album, ex curvo rectum, ex recto curvum. A thing adjudged makes white, black; black, white; the crooked, straight; the straight, crooked. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 840.

Res judicata pro veritate accipitur. A thing adjudged must be taken for truth. Dig. 60. 17. 207; Co. Litt. 103; Broom, Max. 328, 333, 945; 2 Kent 120; 13 M. & W. 679; 59 Pa. 68. See Res Judicata.

Res nullius naturaliter fit primi oocupantis. A thing which has no owner naturally belongs to the first finder. See Finder.

Res per pecuniam æstimatur, et non pecunia per res. The value of a thing is estimated by its worth in money, and the value of money is not estimated by reference to things. 9 Co. 76.

Res periit domino suo. The destruction of the thing is the loss of its owner. Hare, Contr. 88; Story, Bailm. 426; 2 Kent 591; Broom, Max. 238; 14 Allen (Mass.) 269. This maxim is said to be quoted chiefly in cases to which it did not apply in the Roman Law; 9 Harv. L. Rev. 106. See Res Periit Domino; Sale.

Res propria est quæ communis non est. A thing is private which is not common. 8 Paige (N. Y.) 261, 270.

Res quae intra præsidia perductæ nondum sunt, quanquam ab hostibus occupatæ, ideo postliminii non egent, quia dominum nondum mutarunt ex gentium jure. Things which have not yet been introduced within the enemy’s lines, although held by the enemy, do not need the fiction of postliminy on this account, because their ownership by the law of nations has not yet changed. Grotius, de Jur. Bell. I. 3, c. 9, § 16; 1. 3, c. 6, § 3.

Res sacra non recipit æstimationem. A sacred thing does not admit of valuation. Dig. 1. 8. 9. 6.

Res sua nemini servit. No one can have a servitude over his own property. Trayner, Max. 541.

Res transit cum suo onere. The thing passes with its burden. Fleta, 1. 3, c. 10, § 3.

Reservatio non debet esse de proficuis ipsis quia ea conceduntur, sed de redditu novo extra proficua. A reservation ought not to be of the annual increase itself, because it is granted, but of new rent apart from the annual increase. Co. Litt. 142.

Resignatio est juris proprii spontanea refutatio. Resignation is the spontaneous relinquishment of one’s own right. Godb. 284.

Resoluto jure concedentis, resolvitur jus concessum. The right of the grantor being extinguished, the right granted is extinguished. Hack. Civ. Law 179; Broom, Max. 467.

Respiciendum est judicanti, nequia aut durius aut remissius constituatur quam causa deposcit; nec enim aut severitatis aut clementiæ gloria affectanda est. It is a matter of import to one adjudicating that nothing should be either more severely or more leniently construed than the cause itself demands; for the glory neither of severity nor clemency should be affected. 3 Inst. 220.

Respondeat raptor, qui ignorare non potuit quod pupillum alienum abduxit. Let the ravisher answer, for he could not be ignorant that he has taken away another’s ward. Hob. 99.

Respondeat superior. Let the principal answer. Broom, Max. 7, 62, 268, 369, n. 843; 4 Inst. 114; 4 Maule & S. 269; 10 Exch. 656; 98 Mass. 221, 571.

Responsio unius non omnino auditur. The answer of one witness shall not be heard at all. 1 Greenl. Ev. § 260. (This is a maxim of the civil law, where everything must be proved by two witnesses.)

Reus excipiendo fit actor. The defendant by a plea becomes plaintiff. Bannier, Tr. des preuves. §§ 152, 320; Best, Evid. 294, § 252.

Reus læxæ majestatis punitur, ut pereat unus ne pereant omnes. A traitor is punished that one may die lest all perish. 4 Co. 124.

Rex non debet esse sub homine sed sub Deo et lege. The king should not be under the authority of man, but of God and the law. Broom, Max. 47, U7; Bract. 5.

Rex non potest fallere nec falli. The king cannot deceive or be deceived. Grounds & Rud. of Law 438.

Rex non potest peccare. The king can do no wrong. 2 Rolle 304; Jenk. Cent. 9, 308; Broom, Max. 52; 1 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 246.

Rex nunquam moritur. The king never dies. Broom, Max. 50; Branch, Max. 5th ed. 197; 1 Bla. Com. 249.

Riparum usus publicus est jure gentium, sicut ipsius fluminis. The use of river-banks is by the law of nations public, like that of the stream itself. Dig. 1. 8. 5. pr.; Fleta, 1. 3, c. 1, § 5; Loccenius de Jur. Mar. 1. 1, c. 6, § 12; 3 Kent 425.

Roy n’est lie per ascun statute, si il ne soit expressement nosme. The king is not hound by any statute, if he is not expressly named. Jenk. Cent. 307; Broom, Max. 72.

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Sacramentum habet in se tres comites, veritatem, justitiam et judicium; veritas habenda est in jurato; justitia et judicium in judice. An oath has in it three component parts—truth, justice, and judgment: ‘truth in, the party swearing, justice and judgment in the judge administering the oath. 3 Inst. 160.

Sacramentum si fatuum fuerit, licet falsum, tamen non committit perjurium. A foolish oath, though false, makes not perjury. 2 Inst. 167.

Sacrilegus omnium prædonum cupiditatem et scelerem superat. A sacrilegious person transcends the cupidity and wickedness of all other robbers. 4 Co. 106.

Sæpe constitutum est, res inter alios judicatas aliis non præjudicare. It has often been settled that matters adjudged between others ought not to prejudice those who were not parties. Dig. 42. 1. 63.

Sæpe viatorem nova non vetus orbita fallit. Often it is the new track, not the old one, which deceives the traveller. 4 Inst. 34.

Sæpenumero ubi proprietas verborum attenditur, sensus veritatis amittitur. Frequently where the propriety of words is attended to, the meaning of truth is lost. 7 Co. 27.

Salus populi est suprema lex. The safety ot the people is the supreme law. Bacon, Max. Reg. 12; Broom, Max. 1, 10, 287, n.; 13 Co. 139; 8 Metc. (Mass.) 465; 12 id. 82; 116 Mass. 260. See 39 Am L. Rev. 911. The correct reading is given as: Salus populi suprema lex esto.

Salus reipubliæ suprema lex. The safety of the state is the supreme law. 4 Cush. (Mass.) 71; 1 Gray (Mass.) 386; Broom, Max. 366.

Salus ubi multa consilia. In many counsellors there is safety. 4 Inst. 1.

Sanguinis conjunctio benevolentia devincit homines et caritate. A tie of blood overcomes men through benevolence and family affection.

Sapiens incipit a fine, et quod primum est in intentione, ultimum est in executione. A wise man begins with the last, and what is first in intention is last in execution. 10 Co. 25.

Sapiens omnia agit cum consilio. A wise man does everything advisedly. 4 Inst. 4.

Sapientia legis nummario pretio non est æstimanda. The wisdom of the law cannot be valued by money. Jenk. Cent. 168.

Sapientis judicis est cogitare tantum sibi esse permissum, quantum commissum et creditum. It is the duty of a wise judge to think so much only permitted to him as is committed and intrusted to him. 4 Inst. 163.

Satisfaction should be made to that fund which has sustained the loss. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3731.

Satius est petere fontes quam sectari rivulos. It is better to seek the fountain than to follow rivulets. 10 Co. 118.

Scienti et volenti non fit injuria. A wrong is not done to one who knows and assents to it. Bract. 20.

Scientia sciolorum est mixta ignorantia. The knowledge of matterers is mixed ignorance, 8 Co. 169.

Scientia utrinque par pares contrahentes facit. Equal knowledge on both sides makes the contracting parties equal. 3 Burr, 1910; L. B. 2 Q. B, 589; Broom, Max. 772, 792, n.

Scire debes cum quo contrahis. You ought to know with whom you deal. 11 M. & W. 405, 632; 13 id. 171.

Scire et scire debere æquiparantur in jure. To know a thing, and to be bound to know it, are regarded in law as equivalent. Trayner, Max. 551.

Scire leges, non hoc est verba earum tenere, sed vim et potestatem. To know the laws, is not to observe their mere words, but their force and power. Dig. 1. 3. 17,

Scire proprie est rem ratione et per causam cognoscere. To know properly is to know a thing by its cause and in its reason. Co. Litt. 183.

Scribere est agere. To write is to act. 2 Rolle 89; 4 Bla. Com. 80; Broom, Max. 312, 967.

Scriptæ obligationes scriptis tolluntur, et nudi consensus obligatio contrario consensu dissolvitur. Written obligations are dissolved by writing, and the obligations of a naked agreement by a naked agreement to the contrary.

Secta est pugna civilis, sicut actores armantur actionibus, et quasi accinguntur gladiis, ita rei (e contra) muniuntur exceptionibus, et defenduntur quasi clypeis. A suit is a civil battle, as the plaintiffs are armed with actions and as it were girt with swords, so on the other hand the defendants are fortified with pleas, and defended as it were by shields. Hob. 20; Bract. 339 b.

Secta quæ scripto nititur a scripto variari non debet. A suit which relies upon a writing ought not to vary from the writing. Jenk. Cent. 65.

Secundum naturam est, commoda cujusque rei eum sequi, quem sequentur incommoda. It is natural that he who bears the charge of a thing should receive the profits. Dig, 50. 17. 10.

Securius expediuntur negotia commissa pluribus, et plus vident oculi quam oculus. Business intrusted to several speeds best, and several eyes see more than one. 4 Co. 46.

Seisina facit stipitem. Seisin makes the stock. 2 Bla. Com. 209; Broom, Max. 525, 528; 1 Steph. Com. 367; 4 Kent 388, 389; 13 Ga. 238.

Semel civis semper civis. Once a citizen always a citizen. Trayner, Max. 555.

Semel malus semper præsumitur esse malus in eodem genere. Whoever is once bad is presumed to be so always in the same degree. Cro, Car, 317.

Semper in dubiis benigniora præferenda sunt. In dubious cases the more liberal constructions are always to be preferred. Dig. 50. 17. 56.

Semper in dubiis id agendum est, ut quam tutissimo loco res sit bona fide contracta, nisi quum aperte contra leges scriptum est. Always in doubtful cases that is to be done by which a bona fide contract may be in the greatest safety, except when its provisions are clearly contrary to law. Dig. 34. 5, 21.

Semper in obscuris quod minimum est sequimur. In obscure cases we always follow that which is least obscure. Dig. 50. 17, 9; Broom, Max. 687, n.; 3 C. B. 962.

Semper in stipulationibus et in cæteris contractibus id sequimur quod actum est. In stipulations and other contracts we always follow that which was agreed. Dig. 50. 17. 34.

Semper ita flat relatio ut valeat dispositio. Let the reference always be so made that the disposition may avail. 6 Co. 76.

Semper necessitas probandi incumbit ei qui agit. The claimant is always bound to prove (the burden of proof lies on him).

Semper præsumitur pro legitimatione puerorum, et filiatio non potest probari. The presumption is always in favor of legitimacy, for filiation cannot be proved. Co. Litt. 126. See 5 Co. 98 b.

Semper præsumitur pro negante. The presumption is always in favor of the one who denies. See 10 CI. & F. 534; 3 E. & B. 723; 1 Bish. Mar. Div. & Sep. 400.

Semper præsumitur pro sententia. Presumption is always in favor of a judgment. 3 Bulstr. 42.

Semper qui non prohibet pro se intervenire, mandare creditur. He who does not prohibit the intervention of another in his behalf is supposed to authorize it. 2 Kent 616; Dig. 14. 6. 16; 43. 3. 12. 4.

Semper sexus masculinus etiam fæmininum continet. The male sex always includes the female. Dig. 32, 62; 2 Brev. 9.

Semper specialia generalibua insunt. Special clauses are always comprised in general ones. Dig. 50. 17. 147.

Senatores sunt partes corporis regis. Senators are part of the body of the king. Staunf. 72 E; 4 Inst. 53, in marg.

Sensus verborum est anima legis. The meaning of words is the spirit of the law. 5 Co. 2.

Sensus verborum est duplex, mitis et asper, et verba semper accipienda sunt in mitiore sensu. The meaning of words is twofold, mild and harsh; and words are to be received in their milder sense. 4 Co. 13.

Sensus verborum ex causa dicendi accipiendus est, et sermones semper accipiendi sunt secundum subjectam materiam. The sense of words is to be taken from the occasion of speaking them, and discourses are always to be interpreted according to the subject-matter. 4 Co. 14.

Sententia a non judice lata nemini debet nocere. A judgment pronounced by one who is not a judge should not harm any one. Fleta, 1. 6, c. 6, § 7.

Sententia contra matrimonium nunquam transit in rem judicatam. A sentence against marriage never passes into a judgment (conclusive upon the parties), 7 Go, 43.

Sententia facit jus, et legis interpretatio legis vim obtinet. The judgment makes the law, and the interpretation has the force of law,

Sententia facit jus, et res judicata pro veritate accipitur. Judgment creates the right, and what is adjudicated is taken for truth. Ellesm. Postn. 55.

Sententia interlocutoria revocari potest, definitiva non potest. An interlocutory order may be revoked, but not a final one. Bacon, Max. Reg. 20.

Sententia non fertur de rebus non liquidis. Judgment is not given upon a thing which is not clear.

Sequi debet potcntia justitiam, non præcedere. Power should follow justice, not precede it. 2 Inst. 454.

Sermo index animi. Speech is an index of the mind. 5 Co. 118.

Servanda est conauetitdo loci ubi causa agitur. The custom of the place where the action is brought is to be observed.

Servitia personalia sequuntur personam. Personal services follow the person. 2 Inst. 374; Fleta, 1. 3, c. 11, § 1.

Si a jure discedas, vagus eris et erunt omnia omnibus incerta. If you depart from the law, you will wander without a guide, and everything will be in a state of uncertainty to every one. Co. Litt, 227.

Si alicujus rei societas sit et finis negotio impositus est, finitur societas. If there is a partnership in any matter, and the business is ended, the partnership ceases. 16 Johns. (N. Y.) 438, 489.

Si aliquid ex solemnibus deficiat, cum æquitas poscit subveniendum est. If anything be wanting from required forms, when equity requires it will be aided. 1 Kent 157.

Si assuetis mederi possis nova non sunt tentanda. If you can be relieved by accustomed remedies, new ones should not be tried. 10 Co. 142.

Si duo in testamento pugnantia reperientur, ultimum est ratum. If two conflicting provisions are found in a will, the last is observed. Lofft 251.

Si judicas, cognosce. If you judge, understand.

Si meliores sunt quos ducit amor, plures sunt quos corrigit timor. If those are better who are led by love, those are the greater number corrected by fear. Co. Litt. 392.

Si non appareat quid actum est, erit consequens ut id sequamur quod in regione in qua actum est frequentatur. If it does not appear what was agreed upon, the consequence will be that we must follow that which is the usage of the place where the agreement was made. Dig. 50. 17. 34.

Si nulla sit conjectura quæ ducat alio, verba intelligenda sunt ex proprietate, non grammatica sed populari ex usu. If there be no inference which leads to a different result, words are to be understood according to their proper meaning, not in a grammatical, but in a popular and ordinary, sense. 2 Kent 555.

Si plures conditiones ascriptæ fuerunt donationi conjunctim, omnibus est parendum; et ad veritatem copulative requiritur quod utraque pars sit vera, si divisim, quilibet vel alteri eorum satis est obtemperare; et in disjunctivis; sufficit alteram partem esse veram. If several conditions are conjunctively written in a gift, the whole of them must be complied with; and with respect to their truth, it is necessary that every part be true, taken jointly: if the conditions are separate, it is sufficient to comply with either one or other of them; and being disjunctive, that one or the other be true. Co. Litt. 225.

Si plures sint fidejussores, quotquot erunt numero, singuli in solidum tenentur. It there are more sureties than one, how many soever they shall be, they shall each be held for the whole. Inst. 3. 20. 4.

Si quid universitati debetur singulis non debetur, nec quod debet universitas singuli debent. If any thing is due to a corporation, it is not due to the individual members of it, nor do the members individually owe what the corporation owes. Dig. 3. 4. 7; 1 Bla. Com. 484; Lindl. Part. *5.

Si quidem in nomine, cognomine, prænomine, agnomine legatarii testator erraverit, cum de persona constat, nihilominus valet legatum. If the testator has erred in the nanie, cognomen, prænomen, or title of the legatee, whenever the person is rendered certain, the legacy is nevertheless valid. Inst. 2. 20. 29; Broom, Max. 645; 2 Domat b. 2, 1, s. 6, §§ 10, 19.

Si quis cum totum, petiisset partem petat, exceptio rei judicatæ vocet. If a party, when he should have sued for an entire claim, sues only for a part, the judgment is res judicata against another suit; 2 Mart. O. S, (La.) S3.

Si quis custos fraudem pupillo fecerit, a tutela removendus est. If a guardian behave fraudulently to his ward, he shall be removed from the guardianship. Jenk. Cent. 39.

Si quis prægnantem uxorem reliquit, non videtur sine liberis decessisse. If a man dies, leaving his wife pregnant, he shall not be considered as having died childless.

Si quis unum percusserit, cum alium percutere vellet, in felonia tenetur. If a man kill one, meaning to kill another, he is held guilty of felony. 3 Inst. 51.

Si suggestio non sit vera, literæ patentes vacuæ sunt. If the suggestion of a patent is false, the patent itself is void. 10 Co. 113.

Sic enim debere quem meliorem agrum suum facere, ne vicini deteriorem faciat. Every one ought so to improve his land as not to injure his neighbors. 3 Kent 441.

Sic interpretandum est ut verba accipiantur cum effectu. Such an interpretation is to be made that the words may have an effect. 3 Inst. 80.

Sic utere tuo ut alienum non lædas. So use your own as not to injure another’s property. 1 Bla. Com. 306; Broom, Max. 268, 365; Webb, Poll. Torts 153; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2379; 9 Co. 59; 5 Exch. 797; 12 Q. B. 739; 4 A. & E. 384; El., Bl. & El. 643; 17 Mass. 334; 4 McCord (S. C.) 472. Various comments have been made on this maxim: “Mere verbiage” ; El. B. & B. 643. “No help to decision”; L. R. 2 Q. B. 247. “Utterly useless as a legal maxim”; 9 N. Y. 445. It is a mere begging of the question; it assumes the very point in controversy; 13 Lea 507. See 2 Aust. Jurisp. 795, 829; Expedit reipublicæ ne sua re quis male utatur, supra.

Sicut natura nil facit per saltum, ita nec lex.  As nature does nothing by a bound or leap, so neither does the law. Co, Litt. 238.

Sigillum est cera impressa, quia cera sine impressione non est sigillum. A seal is a piece of wax impressed because wax without an impression is not a seal. 3 Inst. 169. But see Seal.

Silence shows consent. 6 Barb. (N. Y.) 28, 35.

Silent leges inter arma. Laws are silent amidst arms. 4 Inst. 70.

Similitudo legalis est casuum, diversorum inter se collatorum similis ratio; quod in una similium valet, valebit in altero. Dissimilium, dissimilis est ratio. Legal similarity is a similar reason which governs various cases when compared with each other, for what avails in one similar case will avail in the other. Of things dissimilar, the reason is dissimilar. Co. Litt. 191; Benj. Sales 379.

Simplex commendatio non obligat. A simple recommendation does not bind. Dig. 4. 3. 37; 2 Kent 485; Broom, Max. 781; 4 Taunt. 488; 16 Q. B. 282, 283; Gro. Jac. 4; 2 Allen (Mass.) 214; 5 Johns. (N. Y.) 354; 4 Barb. (N. Y.) 95.

Simplex et pura donatio dici poterit, ubi nulla est adjecta conditio nec modus. A gift is said to be pure and simple when no condition or qualification is annexed. Bract. 1.

Simplicitas est legibus amica, et nimia subtilitas in jure reprobatur. Simplicity is favorable to the law, and too much subtlety is blameworthy in law. 4 Co. 8.

Sine possessione usucapio procedere non potest. There can be no prescription without possession.

Singuli in solidum, tenentur. Each is bound for the whole. 6 Johhs. Ch. (N. Y.) 242, 252.

Sive tota res evincatur, sive pars, habet regressum emptor in venditorem. The purchaser who has been evicted in whole or in part has an action against the vendor. Dig. 21. 2. 1; Broom, Max. 768.

Socii mei socius meus socius non est. The partner of my partner is not my partner. Dig. 50. 17. 47; Lindl. Part. *48.

Sola ac per se senectus donationem, testamentum aut transactionem non vitiat. Old age does not alone and of itself vitiate gift, will or transaction. 5 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 148, 158.

Solemnitates juris sunt observandæ. The solemnities of law are to be observed. Jenk. Cent. 13.

Solo cedit quod solo implantatur. What is planted in the soil belongs to the soil. Inst. 2. 1. 32; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1572.

Solo cedit quod solo inædificatur. Whatever is built on the soil belongs to the soil. Inst. 2. 1. 29. See 1 Mack. Civ. Law § 268.

Solus Deus hæredem facit. God alone makes the heir. Bract. 62 b; Co. Litt. 5.

Solutio pretii emptionis loco habetur. The payment of the price stands in the place of a sale. Jenk. Cent 56,

Solvendo esse nemo intelligitur nisi qui solidum potest solvere. No one is considered to be solvent unless he can pay all that he owes. Dig. 50. 16. 114.

Solvitur adhuc societas etiam morte socii. A partnership is moreover dissolved by the death of a partner. Inst. 3. 26. 5; Dig. 17. 2.

Solvitur eo ligamine quo ligatur. In the same manner that a thing is bound it is unloosed. 4 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 582.

Spes impunitatis continuum affectum tribuit delinquendi. The hope ol impunity holds out a continual temptation to crime. 3 Inst. 236.

Spoliatus debet ante omnia restitui. He who has been despoiled ought to be restored before anything else. 2 Inst. 714; 4 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 353.

Spoliatus episcopus ante omnia debet restitui. A bishop despoiled of his see ought, above all, to be restored. See 14 L. Q. R. 27.

Spondet peritiam artis. He promises to use the skill of his art. Pothier, Louage, n. 425; Jones, Bailm. 22, 53, 62, 97, 120; Domat, liv. 1, t. 4, s. 8, n. 1; 1 Story, Bailm. § 431; 1 Bell, Com. 5th ed. 459.

Sponte virum fugiens mulier et adultera facta, doti sua careat, nisi sponsi sponte retracta. A woman leaving her husband of her own accord, and committing adultery, should lose her dower, unless her husband takes her back of his own accord. Co. Litt. 37.

Stabit præsumptio donec probetur in contrarium. A presumption will stand good until the contrary is proved. 1 Greenl. Ev. § 33, n.; Hob. 297; 3 Bla. Com. 371; Broom, Max. 949; 15 Mass. 90; 16 id. 87.

Stare decisis et non quieta movere. To adhere to precedents, and not to unsettle things which are established. 11 Wend. (N. Y.) 504; 25 id. 119, 142; 4 Hill (N. Y.) 271, 323; 4 id. 592, 595; 87 Pa. 286; Cooley, Const. Lim. 65. See Stare Decisis.

Stat pro ratione voluntas. The will stands in place of a reason. 1 Barb. (N. Y.) 408, 411; 16 id. 514, 525.

Stat pro ratione voluntas populi. The will of the people stands in place of a reason. 25 Barb. (N. Y.) 344, 276.

Statuta pro publico commodo late interpretantur. Statutes made for the public good ought to be liberally construed. Jenk. Cent. 21.

Statuta suo clauduntur territorio, nec ultra, territorium disponunt. Statutes are confined to their own territory, and have no extra-territorial effect. 4 Allen (Mass.) 334; Story, Confl. L. 24.

Statutes in derogation of common law must be strictly construed. 1 Grant, Cas. (Pa.) 57; Cooley, Const. Lim. 75, n.

Statutum afflrmativum non derogat communi legi. An affirmative statute does not take from the common law, Jenk. Cent. 24.

Statutum generaliter est intelligendum quando verba statuti sunt specialia, ratio autem generalis. When the words of a statute are special, but the reason of it general, it is to be understood generally. 10 Co. 101.

Statutum speciale statuto speciali non derogat. One special statute does not take away from another special statute. Jenk. Cent. 199.

Sublata causa tollitur effectus. Remove the cause and the effect will cease. 2 Bla. Com. 203.

Sublata veneratione magistratuum, respublica ruit. The commonwealth perishes, if respect for magistrates be taken away. Jenk. Cent. 48.

Sublato fundamento, cadit opus. Remove the foundation, the structure falls. Jenk. Cent. 106.

Sublato principali, tollitur adjunctum. If the principal be taken away, the adjunct is also taken away. Co. Litt. 389; Broom, Max. 180, n.

Succurritur minori; facilis est lapsus juventutis. A minor is to be aided; youth is liable to err. Jenk. Cent. 47.

Summa caritas est facere justitiam singulis et omni tempore quando necesse fuerit. The greatest charity is to do justice to every one, and at any time whenever it may be necessary. 11 Co. 70.

Summa est lex quæ pro religione facit. That is the highest law which favors religion. 10 Mod. 117, 119.

Summa ratio est quæ pro religione facit. The highest reason is that which determines in favor of religion. Co. Litt. 341 a; Broom, Max. 19; 5 Co. 14 b; 10 id. 55 a.

Summam esse rationem quæ pro religione facit. That is the highest reason which determines in favor of religion. Dig. 11. 7. 43, cited in Grotius de Jur. Belli, 1. 3, c. 12, s. 7. See 10 Mod. 117, 119.

Summum jus, summa injuria. The rigor of the law, untempered by equity, is not justice. Cicero, de Off; Salmond, Jurispr. 645; Hob. 125.

Sunday is dies non juridicus.

Superficies solo cedit. Whatever is attached to the land forms part of it. Galus 2, 73.

Superflua non nocent. Superfluities do no injury. Jenk. Cent. 184.

Suppressio veri, expressio falsi. Suppression of the truth is (equivalent to) the expression of what is false. 11 Wend. (N. Y.) 374, 417.

Suppressio veri, suggestio falsi. Suppression of the truth is (equivalent to) the suggestion of what is false. 23 Barb. (N. Y.) 521, 525.

Surplusagium non nocet. Surplusage does no harm. Broom, Max. 627.

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Tacita quædam habentur pro expressis. Certain things though unexpressed are considered as expressed. 8 Co. 40.

Talis interpretatio semper fienda est, ut evitetur absurdum, et inconveniens, et ne judicium sit illusorium. Interpretation is always to be made in such a manner that what is absurd and inconvenient is to be avoided, and so that the judgment be not nugatory. 1 Co. 52.

Talis non est eadem, nam nullum simile est idem. What is like is not the same, for nothing similar is the same. 4 Co. 18.

Tantum bona valent, quantum vendi possunt. Things are worth what they will sell for. 3 Inst. 305.

Tantum habent de lege, quantum habent de justitia. (Precedents) have value in the law to the extent that they represent justice. Hob. 270.

Tempus enim modus tollendi obligationes et actiones, quia tempus currit contra desides et sui juris contemptores. For time is a means of destroying obligations and actions, because time runs against the slothful and contemners of their own rights. Fleta, 1. 4, c. 5, § 12.

Tenor est qui legem dat feudo. It is the tenor of the feudal grant which regulates its effect and extent. Craig, Jus. Feud. 3d ed. 66. See Co. Litt. 19 a; 2 Bla. Com. 310; 2 Co. 71; Broom, Max. 459; Wright, Ten. 21, 52, 152.

Terminus annorum certus debet esse et determinatus. A term of years ought to be certain and determinate. Co. Litt. 45.

Terminus et (ac) feodum non possunt constare simul in una eademque persona. A term and the fee cannot both be vested in one and the same person (at the same time). Plowd. 29.

Terra manens vacua occupanti conceditur. Land lying unoccupied is given to the occupant. 1 Sid. 347.

Terra transit cum onere. Land passes with the incumbrances. Co. Litt. 231; Broom, Max. 437, 630.

Testamenta latissimam, interpretationem habere debent. Wills ought to have the broadest interpretation. Jenk. Cent. 81.

Testamentum est voluntatis nostræ justa sententia, de eo quod quis post mortem suam fieri velit. A testament is the just expression of our will concerning that which any one wishes done after his death (or, as Blackstone translates, “the legal declaration of a man’s intentions which he wills to be performed after his death”). 2 Bla. Com. 499; Dig. 28. 1. 1; 29. 3. 2. 1.

Testamentum omne morte consummatum. Every will is completed by death. Co. Litt. 232.

Testatoris ultima voluntas est perimplenda secundum veram intentionem suam. The last will of a testator is to be fulfilled according to his real intention. Co. Litt. 322.

Testes ponderantur, non numerantur. See the maxim Ponderantur testes.

Testibus deponentibus in pari numero dignioribus est credendum. When the number of witnesses is equal on both sides, the more worthy are to be believed. 4 Inst. 279.

Testimonia ponderanda sunt, non numeranda. Proofs are to be weighed, not numbered. Trayner, Max. 585.

Testis de visu præponderat aliis. An eye-witness outweighs others, 4 Inst. 470.

Testis nemo in sua causa esse potest. No one can be a witness in his own cause. (Otherwise in England, and in the United States.)

Testis oculatus unus plus valet quam auriti decem. One eye-witness is worth ten ear-witnesses. 4 Inst. 279. See 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3154.

Testmoignes ne poent testifié le negative, mes I’affirmative. Witnesses cannot testify to a negative; they must testify to an affirmative. 4 Inst. 279.

That which I may defeat by my entry I make good by my confirmation. Co. Litt. 300.

The fund which has received the benefit should make the satisfaction. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3730.

The law abhors a multiplicity of suits.

The parties being in pari casu, justice is in equilibrio.

The repeal of the law imposing a penalty is itself a remission.

Things accessary are of the nature of the principal. Finch, Law b. 1, c. 3, n. 25.

Things are construed according to that which was the cause thereof. Finch, Law b. 1, c. 3, n. 4.

Things are dissolved as they be contracted. Finch, Law, b. 1, c, 3, n. 7.

Things grounded upon an ill and void beginning cannot have a good perfection. Finch, Law, b. 1, c. 3, n. 8.

Things in action, entry, or re-entry cannot be granted over. 19 N. Y. 100, 103.

Things incident cannot be severed. Finch, Law b. 3, c. 1, n. 12.

Things incident pass by the grant of the principal. 25 Barb. (N. Y.) 284, 310.

Things incident shall pass by the grant of the principal, but not the principal by the grant of the incident. Co. Litt. 152 a, 151 b; Broom, Max. 433.

Things shall not be void which may possibly be good.

Timores vani sunt æstimandi qui non cadunt in constantem virum. Fears which do not affect a brave man are vain. 7 Co. 17.

Titulus est justa causa possidendi id quod nostrum est. Title is the just cause of possessing that which is ours. 8 Co. 151 (305); Co. Litt. 345 b.

Tolle voluntatem et erit omnis actus indifferens. Take away the will, and every action will be indifferent. Bract. 2.

Totum præfertur unicuique parti. The whole is preferable to any single part. 3 Co. 41 a.

Tout ce que la loi ne defend pas est permis. Everything is permitted which is not forbidden by law.

Toute exception non surveillée tend à prendre la place du principe. Every exception not watched tends to assume the place of the principle.

Tractent fabrilia fabri. Let smiths perform the work of smiths. 3 Co. Epist.

Traditio loqui facit chartam. Delivery makes the deed speak. 5 Co. 1.

Traditio nihil amplius transferre debet vel potest ad eum qui accipit; quam est apud eum qui tradit. Delivery cannot and ought not to transfer to him who receives more than was in possession of him who made the delivery. Dig. 41. 1. 20.

Transgressione multiplicata, crescat pænæ inflictio. When transgression is multiplied, let the infliction of punishment be increased. 2 Inst. 479.

Transit in rem judicatum. It passes into a judgment. Broom, Max. 298; 11 Pet. (U. S.) 100, 9 L. Ed. 642. See, also, 6 East 251.

Transit terra cum onere. The land passes with its burden. Co. Litt. 231 a; Shep. Touch. 178; 5 B. & C. 607; 7 M. & W. 530; 3 B. & A. 587; 18 C. B. 845; 19 Pick. (Mass.) 453; 24 Barb. (N. Y.) 365; Broom. Max. 495, 706. See Covenants.

Tres faciunt collegium. Three form a corporation. Dig. 50. 16. 85; 1 Bla. Com. 469.

Triatio ibi semper debet fieri, ubi juratores meliorem possunt habere notitiam. Trial ought always to be had where the jury can have the best knowledge. 7 Co. 1.

Trusts survive.

Turpis est pars quæ non convenit cum suo toto. That part is bad which accords not with its whole. Plowd. 161.

Tuta est custodia quæ sibimet creditur. That guardianship is secure which trusts to itself alone. Hob. 340.

Tutius erratur ex parte mitiori. It is safer to err on the side of mercy. 3 Inst. 220.

Tutius semper est errare in acquietando, quam in puniendo; ex parte misericordiæ quam ex parte justiticæ. It is always safer to err in acquitting than punishing; on the side of mercy than on the side of justice. Branch, Princ.; 2 Hale, P. C. 290; Broom, Max. 326.

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Ubi aliquid conceditur, conceditur et id sine quo res ipsa esse non potest. When anything is granted, that also is granted without which the thing granted cannot exist. Broom, Max. 483; 13 M. & W. 706.

Ubi aliquid impeditur propter unum, eo remoto, tollitur impedimentum. When anything is impeded by one single caus,. if that be removed, the impediment is removed. 5 Co. 77 a.

Ubi cessat remedium ordinarium ibi decurritur ad extraordinarium. When a common remedy ceases to be of service, recourse must be had to an extraordinary one. 4 Co. 93.

Ubi culpa est, ibi pæna subesse debet. Where a crime is committed, there the punishment should be inflicted. Jenk. Cent. 325.

Ubi damna dantur, victus victori in expensis condemnari debet. Where damages are given, the losing party should be adjudged to pay the costs of the victor. 2 Inst. 289; 3 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 399.

Ubi eadem ratio, ibi idem, jus; et de similibus idem est judicium. Where there is the same reason, there is the same law, and the same judgment should be rendered on the same state of facts. 7 Co. 18; Broom, Max. 103, n., 153, 155.

Ubi est forum, ibi ergo est jus. The law of the forum governs. 31 Law Mag. & Rev. 471.

Ubi et dantis et accipientis turpitudo versatur, non posse repeti dicimus; quotiens autem accipientis turpitudo versatur, repeti posse. Where there is turpitude on the part of both giver and receiver, we say it cannot be recovered back; but as often as the turpitude is on the side of the receiver (alone) it can be recovered back. 17 Mass. 562.

Ubi factum nullum, ibi fortia nulla. Where there is no act, there can be no force. 4 Co. 43.

Ubi jus, ibi remedium. Where there is a right, there is a remedy. Broom, Max. 191, 204; 1 Term 512; Co. Litt. 197 b; 7 Gray (Mass.) 197; Andr. Steph. PI. 28. It is said that the rule of primitive law was the reverse: Where there is a remedy, there is a right. Salmond, Jurispr. 645.

Ubi jus incertum, ibi jus nullum. Where the law is uncertain, there is no law.

Ubi lex aliquem cogit ostendcre causam, necesse est quod causa sit justa et legitima. Where the law compels a man to show cause, it is necessary that the cause be just and legal. 2 Inst. 269.

Ubi lex est specialis, et ratio ejus generalis, generaliter accipienda est. Where the law is special and the reason of it is general, it ought to be taken as being general. 2 Inst. 43.

Ubi lex non distinguit, nec nos distinguere debemus. Where the law does not distinguish, we ought not to distinguish. 7 Co, 5.

Ubi major pars est, ibi totum. Where is the greater part, there is the whole. F. Moore 578.

Ubi matrimonium, ibi dos. Where there is marriage, there is dower. Bract. 92.

Ubi non adest norma legis, omnia quasi pro suspectis habenda sunt. When the law falls to serve as a rule, almost everything ought to be suspected. Bacon, Aph, 25.

Ubi non est condendi auctoritas, ibi non est parendi necessitas. Where there is no authority to establish, there is no necessity to obey. Dav. 69,

Ubi non est directa lex, standum est arbitrio judicis, vel procedendum ad similia. Where there is no direct law, the judgment of the judge must be depended upon, or reference made to similar cases.

Ubi non est lex, ibi non est transgressio quoad mundum. Where there is no law, there is no transgression, as it regards the world. 4 Co. 1 b.

Ubi non est manifesta injustitia, judices habentur pro bonis viris, et judicatum pro veritate. Where there is no manifest injustice, the judges are to be regarded as honest men, and their judgment as truth. 1 Johns. Cas. (N. Y.) 341, 345.

Ubi non est principalis, non potest esse accessorius. Where there is no principal, there can be no accessory. 4 Co. 43.

Ubi nulla est conjectura quæ ducat alio, verba intelligenda sunt ex proprietate non grammatica sed populari ex usu. Where there is no inference which would lead in any other direction, words are to be understood according to their proper meaning, not grammatical, but according to popular usage. Grotius, de Jur. Belli, 1. 2, c. 16, § 2.

Ubi nullum matrimonium, ibi nulla dos. Where there is no marriage there is no dower. Co. Litt. 32 a.

Ubi periculum, ibi et lucrum collocatur. He at whose risk a thing is, should receive the profits arising from it.

Ubi pugnantia inter se in testamento juberentur, neutrum ratum est. When two directions conflicting with each other are given in a will, neither is held valid. Dig. 50. 17. 188 pr.

Ubi quid generaliter conceditur, inest hæc exceptio, si non aliquid sit contra jus fasque. Where a thing is granted in general terms, this exception is present, that there shall be nothing contrary to law and right., 10 Co. 78.

Ubi quis delinquit ibi punietur. Let a man be punished where he commits the offence. 6 Co. 47.

Ubi verba conjuncta non sunt, sufficit alterutrum esse factum. Where words are used disjunctively, it is sufficient that either one of the things enumerated be performed. Dig. 50. 17. 110. 3.

Ubicunque est injuria, ibi damnum sequitur. Wherever there is a wrong, there damage follows. 10 Co. 116.

Ultima voluntas testatoris est perimplenda secundum veram intentionem suam. The last will of a testator is to be fulfilled according to his true intention. Co. Litt. 322; Broom, Max. 566.

Ultimum supplicium esse mortem solam interpretamur. The extremest punishment we consider to be death alone. Dig. 48. 19. 21.

Ultra posse non potest esse et vice versa. What is beyond possibility cannot exist, and the reverse (what cannot exist is not possible). Wing. Max. 100.

Un ne doit prise advantage de son tort demesne. One ought not to take advantage of his own wrong. 2 And. 38, 40.

Una persona vix potest supplere vices duarum. One person can scarcely supply the place of two. 4 Co. 118.

Unius omnino testis responsio non audiatur. Let not the evidence of one witness be heard at all. Code, 4. 20. 9; 3 Bla. Com. 370.

Uniuscujusque contractus initium spectandum est, et causa. The beginning and cause of every contract must be considered. Dig. 17. 1. 8; Story, Bailm. § 56.

Universalia sunt notiora singularibus. Things universal are better known than things particular. 2 Rolle 294; 2 C. Rob. 294.

Universitas vel corporatio non dicitur aliquid facere nisi id sit collegialiter deliberatum, etiamsi major pars id faciat. A university or corporation is not said to do anything unless it be deliberated upon as a body, although the majority should do it. Dav. 48.

Uno absurdo dato, infinita sequuntur. One absurdity being allowed, an infinity follow. 1 Co. 102.

Unumquodque dissolvitur eodem ligamine quo ligatur. Everything is dissolved by the same mode in which it is bound together. Broom, Max. 884.

Unumquodque eodem modo quo colligatum est dissolvitur. In the same manner in which anything is bound it is loosened. 2 Rolle 39; Broom, Max 891.

Unumquodque est id quod est principalius in ipso. That which is the principal part of a thing is the thing itself.

Unumquodque ligamen dissolvitur eodem ligamine quo et ligatur. Every obligation is dissolved in the same manner in which it is contracted. 2 M. 4 G. 729; 12 Barb. (N. Y.) 366, 375.

Unumquodque principiorum est sibimet ipsi fides; et perspicua vera non sunt probanda. Every principle is its own evidence, and plain truths are not to be proved. Co. Litt. 11; Branch, Princ.

Usucapio constituta est ut aliquis litium finis esset. Prescription was instituted that there might be some end to litigation. Dig, 41. 10. 5; Broom, Max. 894, n; Wood, Civ. Law 3d ed. 123.

Usury is odious in law.

Usus est dominium fiduciarium. A use is a fiduciary ownership. Bacon, Uses.

Ut pæna ad paucos, metus ad omnes perveniat. That punishment may happen to a few, the fear of it affects all. 4 Inst. 63.

Ut res magis valeat quam pereat. That the thing may rather have effect than be destroyed. 11 Allen (Mass.) 445; 100 Mass. 113; 108 Mass. 373; Poll. Contr. 105.

Utile per inutile non vitiatur. What is useful is not vitiated by the useless. Broom, Max. 627-8; 2 Wheat. (U. S.) 221, 4 L. Ed. 224; 2 S. & R. (Pa.) 298; 6 Mass. 303; 12 id. 438; 31 N. C. 254. See 18 Johns. (N. Y.) 93, 94; Andr. Steph. PI. 41, n.

Uxor et filius sunt nomina naturæ. Wife and son are names of nature. 4 Bacon, Works 350.

Uxor non est sui juris, sed sub potestate viri. A wife is not her own mistress, but is under the power of her husband. 3 Inst. 108.

Uxor sequitur domicilium viri. A wife follows the doinicil of her husband. Trayner, Max. 606.

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Vagabundum nuncupamus eum qui nullibi domicilium contraxit habitationis. We call him a vagabond who has acquired nowhere a domicil of residence. Phil. Dom. 23, note.

Valeat quantum valere potest. It shall have effect as far as it can have effect. Cowp. 60 ; 4 Kent 493; Shep. Touch. 87.

Vana est illa potentia quæ nunquam venit in actum. Vain is that power which is never brought into action. 2 Co. 51.

Vani timores sunt æstimandi, qui non cadunt in constantem virem. Vain are those fears which affect not a brave man. 7 Co. 27.

Vani timoris justa excusatio non est. A frivolous fear is not a legal excuse. Dig. 50. 17. 184; 2 Inst. 483; Broom, Max. 256, n.

Velle non creditur qui obsequitur imperio patris vel domini. He is not presumed to consent who obeys the orders of his father or his master. Dig. 50. 17. 4.

Vendens eandem rem duobus falsarius est. He is fraudulent who sells the same thing twice. Jenk. Cent. 107.

Veniæ facilitas incentivum est delinquendi. Facility of pardon is an incentive to crime. 3 Inst. 236.

Veni says it is the act of him who could best do it; and things should be done by him who has the best skill. Noy, Max.

Verba accipienda sunt secundum subjectam materiam. Words are to be interpreted according to the subject-matter. 6 Co. 6, n.

Verba accipienda ut sortiantur effectum. Words are to be taken so that they may have some effect. 4 Bacon, Works 258.

Verba æquivoca ac in dubio sensu posita, intelliguntur digniori et potentiori sensu. Equivocal words and those in a doubtful sense are to be taken in their best and most effective sense. 6 Co. 20.

Verba aliquid operari debent – debent intelligi ut aliquid operentur. Words ought to have some effect – words ought to be interpreted so as to give them some effect. 8 Co. 94.

Verba aliquid operari debent, verba cum effectu sunt accipienda. Words are to be taken so as to have effect. Bacon, Max. Reg. 3, p. 47. See 1 Duer Inst. 210, 211, 216.

Verba artis ex arte. Terms of art should be explained from the art. 2 Kent 556, n.

Verba chartarum fortius accipiuntur contra proferentem. The words of deeds are to be taken most strongly against the person offering it. Co. Litt. 36 a; Bacon, Max. Reg. 3; Noy, Max., 9th ed. p. 48; 3 B. & P. 399, 403; 1 C. & M. 657; 8 Term 605; 15 East 546; 1 Ball. & B. 335; 2 Pars. Con. 22; Broom, Max. 594. See Construction; Policy.

Verba cum effectu accipienda sunt. Words are to be interpreted so as to give them effect. Bacon, Max. Reg. 3.

Verba currentis monetæ tempus solutionis designant. The words “current money” refer to the time of payment. Dav. 20.

Verba debent intelligi cum effectu. Words should be understood effectively.

Verba debent intelligi ut aliquid operentur. Words ought to be so understood that they may have some effect. 8 Co. 94 a.

Verba dicta de persona, intelligi debent de conditione personæ. Words spoken of the person are to be understood of the condition of the person. 2 Rolle 72.

Verba generalia generaliter sunt intelligenda. General words are to be generally understood. 3 Inst. 76.

Verba generalia restringuntur ad habilitatem rei vel aptitudinem personæ. General words must be restricted to the nature of the subject-matter or the aptitude of the person. Bacon, Max. Reg. 10; 11 C. B. 254, 356.

Verba generalia restringuntur ad habilitatem rei vel personæ. General words must be confined or restrained to the nature of the subject or the aptitude of the person. Bacon, Max. Reg. 10; Broom, Max. 646.

Verba illata (relata) inesse videntur. Words referred to are to be considered as if incorporated. Broom, Max. 674, 677; 11 M. & W. 183, 188; 10 C. B. 261, 263, 266.

Verba in differenti materia per prius, non per posterius, intelligenda sunt. Words referring to a different subject are to be interpreted by what goes before, not by what follows. Calvinus, Lex.

Verba intelligenda sunt in casu possibili. Words are to be understood in reference to a possible case. Calvinus, Lex.

Verba intentioni, et non e contra, debent inservire. Words ought to wait upon the intention, not the reverse. 8 Co. 94; 6 Allen (Mass.) 324; 1 Spence, Eq. Jur. 527; 2 Sharsw. Bla. Com. 379.

Verba ita sunt intelligenda, ut res magis valeat quam pereat. Words are to be so understood that the subject-matter may be preserved rather than destroyed. Bacon, Max. Reg. 3; Plowd. 156; 2 Bla. Com. 380; 2 Kent. 555.

Verba mere æquivoca, si per communem usum loquendi in intellectu certo sumuntur, talis intellectus præferendus est. When words are merely equivocal, if by common usage of speech they acquire a certain meaning, such meaning is to be preferred. Calvinus, Lex.

Verba nihil operari melius est quam absurde. It is better that words should have no operation, than to operate absurdly. Calvinus, Lex.

Verba non tam intuenda, quam causa et natura rei, ut mens contrahentium ex eis potius quam ex verbis appareat. Words are let to be looked at so much as the cause and nature of the thing, since the intention of the contracting parties may appear from those rather than from the words. Calvinus, Lex.

Verba offendi possunt, imo ab eis recedere licet, ut verba ad sanum, intellectum reducantur. You may disagree with words, nay, you may recede from them, in order that they may be reduced to a sensible meaning. Calvinus, Lex.

Verba ordinationis quando verificari possunt in sua vera significatione, trahi ad extraneum, intellectum non debent. When the words of an ordinance can be made true in their true signification, they ought not to be warped to a foreign meaning. Calvinus, Lex.

Verba posteriora propter certitudinem addita, ad priora quæ certitudine indigent, sunt referunda. Subsequent words added for the purpose of certainty are to be referred to preceding words in which certainty is wanting. Wing. Max. 167; 6 Co. 236; Broom, Max. 586.

Verba pro re et subjecta materia accipi debent. Words should be received most favorably to the thing and the subject-matter. Calvinus, Lex.

Verba quae aliquid operari possunt non debent esse superflua. Words which can have any effect ought not to be treated as surplusage. Calvinus, Lex.

Verba, quantumvis generalia, ad aptitudinem restringuntur, etiamsi nullam, aliam paterentur restrictionem. Words, howsoever general, are restrained to fitness i. e. to harmonize with the subject- matter) though they would bear no other restriction. Spiegelius.

Verba relata hoc maxime operantur per referentiam ut in eis inesse videntur. Words to which reference is made in an instrument have the same effect and operation as if they were inserted in the clause referring to them. Co. Litt. 359; Broom, Max. 673; 14 East 668.

Verba relata inesse videntur. Words to which reference is made seem to be incorporated. 11 Cush. (Mass.) 137.

Verba secundum materiam subjectam intelligi nemo est qui nescit. There is no one who is ignorant that words should be understood according to the subject-matter. Calvinus, Lex.

Verba semper accipienda sunt in mitiori sensu. Words are always to be taken in their milder sense. 4 Co. 17.

Verba strictæ significationis ad latam extendi possunt, si subsit ratio. Words of a strict signification can be given a wide signification if reason require. Calvinus, Lex; Spiegelius.

Verba sunt indices animi. Words are indications of the intention. Latch 106.

Verbis standum ubi nulla ambiguitas. One must abide by the words where there is no ambiguity. Trayner, Max. 612.

Verbum imperfecti temporis rem adhuc imperfectam significat. The imperfect tense of the verb indicates an incomplete matter.

Veredictum, quasi dictum veritatis; ut judicium, quasi juris dictum. A verdict is as it were the saying of the truth, in the same manner that a judgment is the saying of the law. Co. Litt, 226.

Veritas demonstrationis tollit errorem nominis. The truth of the description removes the error of the name. 1 Ld. Raym. 303. See Legatee.

Veritas habenda est in juratore; justitia et judicium in judice. Truth is the desideratum in a juror; justice and judgment, in a judge. Bract 185 b.

Veritas nihil veretur nisi abscondi. Truth fears nothing but concealment. 9 Co. 20.

Veritas nimium altercando amittitur. By too much altercation truth is lost. Hob. 344,

Veritas nominis tollit errorem demonstrationis. The truth of the name takes away the error of description. Bacon, Max. Reg. 25; Broom, Max. 637, 641; 8 Taunt. 313; 2 Jones, Eq. (N. C.) 72.

Veritatem qui non libere pronunciat, proditor est veritatis. He who does not speak the truth freely is a traitor to the truth. 4 Inst. Epil.

Via antiqua via est tuta. The old way is the safe way. 1 Johns. Ch. (N. T.) 527, 530.

Via trita est tutissima. The beaten road is the safest. 10 Co. 142; 4 Maule & S. 168.

Via trita, via tuta. The beaten way is the safe way. 6 Pet. (U. S.) 223, 8 L. Ed. 92; Broom, Max. 134.

Vicarius non habet vicarium. A deputy cannot appoint a deputy. Branch, Max. 38; Broom, Max. 839; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1300.

Vicini viciniora præsumuntur scire. Neighbors are presumed to know things of the neighborhood. 4 Inst. 173.

Videtur qui surdus et mutus ne poet faire alienation. It seems that a deaf and dumb man cannot alienate. 4 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 441, 444; Bisp. Eq. § 39.

Vigilantibus et non dormientibus jura subveniunt. The laws serve the vigilant, not those who sleep. 2 Inst. 690; 7 Allen (Mass.) 493; 12 id. 28; 10 Watts (Pa.) 24. See Laches; Broom, Max. 65, 772, 892; 76 Ga. 618; 27 Ch. D. 523; 11 H. L. Cas. 535.

Vim vi repellere licet, modo fiat moderamine inculpate tutelæ, non ad sumendam vindictam, sed ad propulsandam injuriam. It is lawful to repel force by force; but let it be done with the self-control of blameless defence,—not to take revenge, but to repel injury. Co. Litt. 162.

Viperina est expositio quæ corrodit viscera textus. That is a viperous exposition which gnaws out the bowels of the text. 11 Co. 34.

Vir et uxor censentur in lege una persona. Husband and wife are considered one person in law. Co. Litt. 112; Jenk. Cent. 27.

Vis legibus est inimica. Force is inimical to the laws. 3 Inst. 176.

Vitium clerici nocere non debet. Clerical errors ought not to prejudice. Jenk. Cent. 23; Dig. 34. 5. 3.

Vitium est quod fugi debet, ne, si rationem non invenias, max legem sine ratione esse clames. It is a fault which ought to be avoided, that if you cannot discover the reason, you should presently exclaim that the law is without reason. Ellesm. Postn. 86.

Vix ulla lex fieri potest quæ omnibus commoda sit, sed si majori parti prospiciat, utilis est. Scarcely any law can be made which is beneficial to all; but if it benefit the majority it is useful. Plowd. 369.

Vocabula artium explicanda sunt secundum definitiones prudentium. Terms of art should be explained according to the definitions of those who are experienced in that art. Puffendorff, de Off. Hom. 1. 1, c. 17, § 3; Grotius, de Jur. Bell. 1. 2, c. 16, § 3.

Void in part, void in toto. 15 N. Y. 9, 96.

Void things are as no things. 9 Cow. (N. Y.) 778, 784.

Volenti non fit injuria. He who consents cannot receive an injury. Webb, Poll. Torts 185.

Voluit sed non dixit. He willed but did not say. 4 Kent. 638.

Voluntas donatoris in charta doni sui manifeste expressa observetur. The will of the donor, clearly expressed in the deed, should be observed. Co. Litt. 21 a.

Voluntas et propositum distinguunt maleficia. The will and the proposed end distinguish crimes. Bract. 2 b, 136 b.

Voluntas facit quod in testamento scriptum valeat. The will of the testator gives validity to what is written in the will. Dig. 30. 1. 12. 3.

Voluntas in delictis non exitus spectatur. In offences, the will and not the consequences are to be looked to. 2 Inst. 57.

Voluntas reputatur pro facto. The. will is to be taken for the deed. 3 Inst. 69; Broom, Max. 341; 4 Mass. 439.

Voluntas testatoris ambulatoria est usque ad mortem. The will of a testator is ambulatory until his death (that is, he may change it at any time). See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 33; 4 Co. 61.

Voluntas testatoris habet interpretationem latam, et benignam. The will of the testator should receive a broad and liberal interpretation. Jenk. Cent. 260; Dig. 50. 17. 12.

Voluntas ultima testatoris est perimplenda secundum veram intentionem suam. The last will of a testator is to be fulfilled according to his true intention. Co. Litt. 322.

Vox emissa volat,—litera scripta manet. Words spoken vanish, words written remain. Broom, Max. 66S.

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We must not suffer the rule to be frittered away by exceptions. 4 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 46.

What a man cannot transfer, he cannot bind by articles.

When many join in one act, the law says it is the act of him who could best do it; and things should be done by him who has the best skill. Noy, Max.

When no time is limited, the law appoints the most convenient.

When the common law and statute law concur, the common law is to be preferred. 4 Co. 71.

When the foundation fails, all fails.

When the law gives anything, it gives a remedy for the same.

When the law presumes the affirmative, the negative is to be proved. 1 Rolle 83.

When two titles concur, the best is preferred. Finch, Law. b. 1, c. 4, n. 82.

Where there is equal equity, the law must prevail. Bisp. Eq. § 40; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3727.

Where two rights concur, the more ancient shall be preferred.